伍汉斌,段爱国,张建国,孙建军.杉木地理种源长期选择效果研究[J].林业科学研究,2019,32(3):9-17
杉木地理种源长期选择效果研究
Effect of Long-term Selection of Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook) Provenances
投稿时间:2018-01-18  修订日期:2019-03-18
DOI:10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2019.03.002
中文关键词:  杉木  种源试验  长期选择  遗传增益
英文关键词:Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook  provenance test  long-term selection  genetic gain
基金项目:中国林科院院基金"杉木第三代种质评价及第四代育种群体构建(CAFYBB2017ZA001-1)";江西省林业厅林业科技创新专项"杉木高世代育种亲本选择和新品系创制(201702)"及国家自然科学基金面上项目(31370629)
作者单位E-mail
伍汉斌 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 国家林业和草原局林木培育重点实验室, 林木遗传育种国家重点实验室, 北京 100091  
段爱国 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 国家林业和草原局林木培育重点实验室, 林木遗传育种国家重点实验室, 北京 100091
南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210037 
duanag@caf.ac.cn 
张建国 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所, 国家林业和草原局林木培育重点实验室, 林木遗传育种国家重点实验室, 北京 100091
南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210037 
 
孙建军 中国林业科学研究院亚热带林业实验中心, 江西 分宜 336600  
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中文摘要:
      [目的]研究不同林龄的杉木地理种源生长状况的差异,筛选适宜于试验区发展的杉木优良种源,促进杉木种源水平的长期遗传改良。[方法]利用1981年营造的杉木种源试验林在5、10、31年生时的测定材料,分析不同种源主要生长性状在不同林龄的遗传参数变异规律,利用早晚相关和聚类分析对优良种源长期选择效果进行评价。[结果]不同林龄的杉木胸径、树高和单株材积在种源间均存在极显著的差异,31年生时最大种源的各性状值较最小种源的各性状分别高75.86%,48.55%,263.76%;杉木在种源间的变异存在明显的地理变异模式,以纬向变异为主,由南向北,杉木的生长量先增大后减小,即我国西南和东南部种源生长较好。参试杉木种源不同林龄时各性状的遗传力为0.750~0.875,说明各性状受较高水平的遗传控制;胸径、树高和单株材积在不同林龄间表型相关和秩相关均呈极显著的正相关,认为杉木早期选择宜在10年生左右;从169个参试种源中筛选出29个生长较快速的种源,大部分种源来自福建省,还包含贵州、广西和湖南等地的种源,其中,生长最好的是福建崇安、顺昌、尤溪等福建北部种源,其胸径、树高和单株材积的遗传增益分别达到23.21%~31.45%、15.60%~20.19%、59.94%~89.97%。[结论]早期选择的年龄对缩短杉木育种周期影响明显,在10年生选择更有利于提高杉木遗传改良的效率,从31年生杉木成熟林中选择出的29个优良种源较当地种源有较大增幅,适宜在江西省及周边地区推广。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] To study the differences in the geographical provenance of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook) in different-aged forest and to screen provenances in the experimental area for the purpose of promoting the long-term genetic improvement of Chinese fir provenance.[Method] A provenance test forest of Chinese fir was established in 1981, and the major growth parameters were measured at the 5th, 10th and 31st years to detect the genetic variation in DBH, tree height and volume index among provenances. The study evaluated the long-term selection effect of good provenance by using juvenile-mature correlation and cluster analysis.[Result] The result showed that there were great significant genetic variation in tree height, DBH and volume. The variation coefficients at the 31th year were 75.86%, 48.55% and 263.76% for DBH, tree height and volume. The variance of traits followed an obvious geographic variation pattern, and latitude played the major role. From the south to north, the increment of Chinese fir increased at first and then decreased, and the provenances from southwestern and southeastern China grew better. The heritabilities of provenance for DBH, tree height and volume varied between 0.75 and 0.85, indicating the three growth traits had high genetic control level. The trait value and the rank based on major traits were correlated significantly and positively among different selection ages. This study showed that the appropriate selection age for Chinese fir provenance test should be about 10 years. Twenty-nine provenances of Chinese fir were selected from 169 provenances, most of which originated from Fujian Province and the others originated from Guizhou, Guangxi and Hu'nan province. Among them the provenances grew the best came from Chong'an, Shunchang, and Youxi of northern Fujian Province. The genetic gains of DBH, tree height and volume were 23.21%-31.45%,15.60%-20.19%,and 59.94%-89.97%, respectively.[Conclusion] The early selection age has a significant effect on shortening the breeding cycle of Chinese fir. Selection at the 10th year is more conducive to improve the efficiency of Chinese fir genetic improvement. The 29 excellent provenances selected from the 31-year-old mature Chinese fir forests have a larger increase than the local provenances, and are suitable for expanding in the Jiangxi Province and the surrounding areas.
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