王玥琳,徐大平,杨曾奖,刘小金,洪舟,张宁南.不同浓度乙烯利对降香黄檀心材和精油成分的影响[J].林业科学研究,2019,32(3):56-64
不同浓度乙烯利对降香黄檀心材和精油成分的影响
Effects of Different Concentrations of Ethephon on the Heartwood and Essential Oil Components of Dalbergia odorifera
投稿时间:2018-12-13  修订日期:2019-01-16
DOI:10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2019.03.008
中文关键词:  降香黄檀  心材  精油成分  乙烯利  组织化学
英文关键词:Dalbergia odorifera  heartwood  essential oil components  ethephon  histochemistry
基金项目:广东省林业科技创新专项资金项目(2016KJCX009);国家十三五重点研发专项(2016YFD0600601);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(RITFYWZX201407)
作者单位E-mail
王玥琳 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广东 广州 510520  
徐大平 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广东 广州 510520 gzfsrd@163.com 
杨曾奖 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广东 广州 510520  
刘小金 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广东 广州 510520  
洪舟 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广东 广州 510520  
张宁南 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所, 广东 广州 510520  
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中文摘要:
      [目的]为了解不同浓度乙烯利对降香黄檀心材形成和精油成分的影响。[方法]以胸径6~8 cm降香黄檀为研究对象,采用树干注射的方法,研究不同乙烯利浓度(CK、0.1%、0.5%、2.5%)对降香黄檀淀粉和可溶性糖、基本材性、组织化学、精油成分的影响。[结果]表明:不同浓度乙烯利处理边材和变色边材的可溶性糖含量差异明显,变色边材的含糖量均明显低于边材;各处理边材的淀粉含量均显著高于CK,0.5%处理的变色边材中的淀粉含量最高,且显著高于其他处理。0.5%处理的生材密度最大,为1.036 g·cm-3;绝对含水率、相对含水均为2.5%处理的最高;不同浓度乙烯利处理显著提高了变色边材的百分比和变色边材形成率。组织化学结果显示,各处理边材中均含有大量淀粉,变色边材中基本没有;变色边材中观测到大量脂类、酸性脂类和酚醛类物质,而未在边材中出现。变色边材出油率随乙烯利浓度的增加逐渐升高,0.1%、0.5%、2.5%分别比CK增加了52.28%、121.54%、128.54%。在检测到的12种共有心材成分中最主要的为橙花叔醇,各处理的橙花叔醇含量顺序为:CK > 0.1% > 2.5% > 0.5%;甜没药萜醇A含量最高的为2.5%,比CK升高了36.59%;α-金合欢烯和紫檀素均为0.1%处理的含量最高。[结论]综合分析各乙烯利处理对降香黄檀可溶性糖、基本材性、组织化学、精油成分和含量的影响,2.5%处理更有利于促进降香黄檀心材的形成。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] To understand the effects of different concentrations of ethephon on the formation of heartwood and essential oil component of Dalbergia odorifera.[Method] The experiment selected D.odorifera with DBH ranging from 6 to 8 cm as the research object. This study aimed at questing the impacts of various ethephon concentration degrees (CK, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 2.5%) on starch and soluble sugar of D. odorifera, basic wood properties, histochemistry, and essential oil component via trunk injection.[Result] The consequences manifested the obvious discrepancy of soluble sugar content between sapwood and discoloration wood among all treatments. Moreover, all sugar content of discoloration wood was much lower than that of sapwood. All sapwood's starch content processed with ethephon exceeded that of CK, and the starch content of 0.5% treatment was the highest, which was consistent with the findings of discoloration wood's starch content. With regards to the timber characters, the maximum fresh timber density was 1.036 g·cm-3 with 0.5% treatment, and 2.5% processing led to the maximum values for both absolute and relative moisture content. In addition, all the ethephon treatments dramatically improved the percentage and the formation rate of discoloration wood. The results regarding histochemistry indicated that all sapwood contained massive starch while discoloration wood possessed none. A large number of lipids, acidic lipids and phenolic compounds was observed in discoloration wood while none in the sapwood. The oil yield of discolored wood increased gradually with the increase of ethephon concentration. 0.1%, 0.5% and 2.5% treatments increased by 52.28%, 121.54% and 128.54%, respectively. Among the12 common heartwood components detected, the most important one was nerolidol, and the order was CK > 0.1% > 2.5% > 0.5%. Furthermore, 2.5% treatment contributed to the highest content of bisabolol oxide A, which elevated 36.59% more than that of CK. Both alpha-farnesene and homopterocarpin in 0.1% treated samples had the highest content.[Conclusion] Each ethephon treatment could affect starch and resoluble sugar, basic wood properties, histochemistry, and essential oil component of Dalbergia odorifera. 2.5% treatment could facilitate the formation of D. odorifera's heartwood.
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