不同采收时期对香椿饲用品质的影响
Effect of Different Harvest Time on Forage Quality of Toona sinensis
投稿时间:2018-06-29  修订日期:2018-09-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  香椿  采收时期  粗蛋白  类黄酮  抗氧化活性  硝酸盐
英文关键词:Toona sinensis  harvest time  crude protein  flavonoids  antioxidant activity  nitrate
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31700603);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(CAFYBB2017QA004)
作者单位E-mail
耿涌杭 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所 gengyh234@126.com 
许新桥 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所  
倪建伟 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所  
苏上 中国林业科学研究院林业研究所 sssushang@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      [目的]对不同采收时期所得香椿复叶的粗蛋白、类黄酮、总硝酸盐含量及其抗氧化活性进行分析比较,筛选饲用香椿复叶的最佳采收时期。[方法]以5月15日至11月1日逐月采收的香椿复叶为材料,测定其粗蛋白(凯氏定氮法)、类黄酮(分光光度法)及总硝酸盐含量(离子色谱法),并利用ORAC、DPPH、FRAP法测定其抗氧化活性,综合营养及保健活性分析,筛选最适饲用采收时期。[结果]不同采收期,香椿复叶粗蛋白、类黄酮、硝酸盐含量及抗氧化活性差异显著(P < 0.05)。其中,香椿复叶粗蛋白含量(全采收期13.17-22.65%)随其成熟度增加而呈下降趋势,除10月中旬后的样品外,其余采收期复叶粗蛋白含量均大于15%,远高于常规粮食饲料,具有高蛋白的饲用优势;类黄酮含量突出(全采收期均值1586.77 mg·100 g-1),远高于蓝莓等常见果蔬,且随复叶成熟而持续积累,并于10月达到最高2702.26 mg·100 g-1;ORAC、DPPH、FRAP法测定结果均表明香椿复叶具有突出的抗氧化活性,且随复叶成熟而持续增加,并与其类黄酮含量呈极显著正相关(P < 0.01);香椿复叶大量富集硝酸盐(全采收期2306.39-7346.80 mg·kg-1),且随其叶片成熟呈“V”形积累,7-8月中旬采收的香椿复叶硝酸盐含量处峰谷阶段,此间均值为2603.78 mg·kg-1,相对适于进行饲用采收。[结论]不同采收期香椿复叶的饲用品质差异显著,综合考虑其营养价值及保健功效,认为7 - 8月中旬是对香椿复叶进行饲用采收的最适采收时期。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] The present study intends to reveal and compare the contents of crude protein, flavonoids, nitrates and their antioxidant activity of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem (TS) harvested in different time, and to screen for the optimal harvest time for fodder utilize. [Method] The contents of crude protein(kjeldah method), flavonoids(spectrophotometric method)and total nitrates(ion chromatography method)of rachises of TS harvested from May to November were analyzed, and their antioxidant activity were determined by ORAC, DPPH and FRAP method. Then combining the nutritional and healthy analysis, the optimal harvest time was determined. [Result] There were significant differences in the crude protein, flavonoids, total nitrates contents and antioxidant activity of TS harvested in different time(P < 0.05). Among them, the crude protein content (varied from 13.17% to 22.65%) presented a downward trend with the maturity of TS. But except samples harvested after the middle of October, the rest samples were shown protein forage advantage with the crude protein contents greater than 15%, which were far higher than conventional grain feedstuffs. The flavonoids contents of TS from all the different harvest time were highlighted (the average 1586.77 mg·100 g-1). They were far higher than common fruits and vegetables, such as blueberries, and were persistently accumulated with the maturity of rachises, and reached the highest in October as 2702.26 mg·100 g-1. The results of ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assay all shown outstanding antioxidant activities which were increased with the maturity of rachises. Meanwhile, very significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) were detected between the flavonoids content and the antioxidant activities. A large amount of nitrates were detected in TS from different harvest time (2306.39 - 7346.80 mg·kg-1). The accumulation of nitrates in TS presented a “V”shape along with its maturity. TS harvested in the middle of July and August, with the average nitrates content as 2603.78 mg·kg-1, were in the lowest stage of nitrates content, and were suggested to be relatively suitable for forage harvest. [Conclusion] The feeding quality of TS harvested in different time were proved to be significant different. Comprehensively consider the nutritional value and health care effect of TS, the middle of July and August were suggested to be the optimum harvesting time for the forage development of TS.
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