DNA条形码技术在林业科学研究中的应用
Applications of DNA barcoding in forestry
投稿时间:2018-10-18  修订日期:2018-12-11
DOI:
中文关键词:  条形码数据库  生物多样性监测  林业发展  森林生态  林业可持续发展
英文关键词:DNA barcoding library  Biodiversity monitoring  Forestry development  Forest ecology  Forestry sustainable development
基金项目:国家自然科学基金:沿海拔和纬度梯度的中亚热带常绿阔叶林群落系统发育β多样性研究,中国-日本森林植物亚区亚热带地区木本植物系统发育区系地理学研究
作者单位E-mail
刘娟 江西农业大学 liu_juan1122@163.com 
胡冬南 江西农业大学  
周增亮 江西农业大学  
刘爽 江西农业大学  
万松泽 江西农业大学 swan0722@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:[目的]总结DNA条形码(DNA barcoding)技术的研究现状、发展及其在林业研究领域中的应用。[方法]通过查阅国内外相关文献,对DNA条形码概念的产生与发展、国内外研究现状、发展趋势、面临的主要问题及其在林业研究领域中的应用进行归纳总结。[结果] DNA条形码最早于2003年提出,它是利用生物体内普遍存在的一个或几个、较短的且标准化的基因片段作为通用条形码,并基于片段碱基序列的差异来实现物种水平上快速准确鉴定的工具。相对于传统的分类学,DNA条形码技术具有不依赖形态特征和发育阶段、鉴定数字化、快速准确、操作简单规范等优势。目前已成功应用在生物多样性监控、在海关、中药材真伪鉴定、法医鉴定、动植物检疫、生物入侵、食品和药物市场监督等诸多领域。经过十五年时间发展,DNA条形码研究已基本确定针对不同的生物类群使用不同的标准且通用的DNA条形码片段,同时构建了标准的全球生命条形码数字化数据库。目前DNA条形码的研究方向主要在提高近缘类群物种分辨率和构建区域条形码数据库两个方向,从而扩展DNA条形码应用范围和提高物种鉴定能力。在林业科学研究中,DNA条形码在木材识别、森林群落生态和生物多样性监控与评估等领域发展迅猛,但同时也面临一些问题,如木材DNA降解、整条片段的扩增等,需要在条形码片段选择、数据库构建、数据库与高通量测序技术结合、分析方法改进等方向进一步深入研究。[结论]DNA条形码是近年来生物学发展最迅猛的方向之一,未来在林业资源评价、保护和可持续利用等研究方向具有广阔的应用前景,为提高林业发展潜力提供了新的思路。
英文摘要:
      Abstract:[Objective] We reviewed the development and current advances of DNA barcoding,focusing on the applications of DNA barcoding in forest researches. [Methods] This paper presented the concepts, progress and challenges of DNA barcoding at home and abroad. In addition, we summarized the advances in the use of DNA barcoding for forest researches. [Results] DNA barcoding, proposed firstly in 2003, involves one or a few standardized short DNA regions to discriminate species. Comparing to the traditional methods, DNA barcoding have several advantages, such as expanding species diagnoses to cover all life-history stages of an organism, discovering new species species by general public with few taxonomic experience. DNA barcoding are now being utilized successfully for a variety of biological applications, including the species identification of biodiversity inventory, biological invasion, forensic contexts, food and medicinal market. Over fifteen years of the development, scientific researchers had achieved consensus on standard DNA barcodes in Animal, plants and fungi, and has constructed the global DNA barcoding library that included huge sample sets, sequences, data management and other more detail information. The evaluation of DNA barcoding now has typically focused on two different perspectives: one is to improve the ability to distinguish closely related species, the other is to construct local DNA barcoding library in order to expand applications of DNA barcoding. For the forestry, DNA barcoding has gained adoption in a set of diverse applied contexts, including wood identification, community ecology and biodiversity monitoring, but there still are several challenges, for example woody sample degradation and the amplification of the whole barcode, the construction of woody species, data analysis and costs of next generation sequencing. [Conclusion] This paper highlighted that the DNA barcoding will play a key role in the evaluation, protection and sustainable development of forestry resources. This review may provide a new idea for the proceeding studies of DNA barcoding in forestry.
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