近自然森林经营在德国的应用成效分析
Application Effect Analysis of the Near-Natural Forest Management in Germany
投稿时间:2018-12-29  修订日期:2019-01-28
DOI:
中文关键词:  近自然  经营成效  二十年  德国
英文关键词:near-natural  management effect  two decades  Germany
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
王秋丽 中国林业科学研究院 wangqiuli6666@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      [目的]德国是全球公认的现代林业发祥地,其近自然森林经营理论和技术体系,享誉世界。总结分析近自然森林经营奥秘十分重要。[方法]本文在明晰近自然森林经营原则的基础上,基于两期资源清查数据对比,着重分析了德国大面积推行近自然森林经营20年的经营效果。[结果]如今德国森林每公顷蓄积336m3与历史上的森林经营管理和现阶段联邦政府保护和促进森林的政策有关,当然每公顷蓄积的增加离不开林场主所采用的先进的近自然森林经营理念与技术;近自然经营20年,针叶林如挪威云杉和欧洲赤松的面积显著减少,阔叶树和针阔混交林面积持续增加;所有阔叶树种蓄积平均增长量约为15m3/hm2,所有针叶树种蓄积平均增长4m3/hm2,而挪威云杉是唯一蓄积下降了5m3/hm2的树种;近自然度等级变化明显表明,人工林面积在减少而近自然森林的面积在增加,甚至符合原始林等级的森林面积也在增加。[结论] 实现近自然森林经营的目标是一个长期的过程,联邦政府促进和保护森林的政策以及林场主所采用的先进的森林经营技术也是德国森林每公顷蓄积达到336 m3的重要原因;在近自然森林经营的原则下,德国森林中针阔混交林比例显著增加;将近自然程度不高的人工林经营转化为近自然的森林生态系统是德国森林经营所面临的主要问题。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] Germany, which is considered as the origin of modern forestry, initially proposes the concept of Near-Natural Forest Management. It is very important to summarize and analyze the Near-Natural Forest Management. [Method] On the basis of clarifying the management principle of the near-natural forest, this paper emphatically analyzes the management effect of the near natural forest management in Germany for 20 years based on the two period resource Inventory Data. [Result] The paper points out that the high volume of 336 m3/hm2 of forest in Germany is related to the historical forest management measures and current federal policy of protecting and promoting forests. Undoubtedly, the increase of forest volume per hectare cannot be separated from the advanced management concept and technology of near-natural forest management adopted by the forest owners. The area of coniferous forests, such as Norway spruce and European red pines, has been significantly reduced in the past 20 years of natural management, and that of broad-leaved forests and coniferous mixed forests continues to increase. All broadleaf species show an average volume increase of about 15 m3/hm2, and all conifer species combined also show a positive change of additional 4 m3/hm2, whereas Norway spruce is the only species with a decline in volume of 5 m3/ hm2. Most strikingly is the decrease in area of artificial forests and the increase in the classes near-natural and even pristine. [Conclusion] Achieving the objective of near-natural forest management is a long-term process. Two major factors that contribute to the high stock volume of 336m3/hm2 are federal policies which promote and conserve forests and advanced forest management measures adopted by private forest owners. Application of near-natural forest management has resulted in an increase of mixed forests; the major challenge facing forestry in Germany is to convert plantation forests with a low near-natural degree to a near-natural forest ecosystem.
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