1990 Vol. 3, No. 6
Open pollination progeny testing of 54 families of 8-year-old Chinese Fir was conducted.The main economic traits including growth development and trunk-shape were measured in order to find out: (1) the differences between different traits of Chinese Fir families;(2) genetic variation of quantitative traits among the families;(3)and at last,by using of Index Selection Method,16 fast-growing families with higher qualities were assessed.The genetic gain in the selective index values reached 20.17%.The results also show that Index Selection Method is very effective.
In this paper,the relationship between the culture temperature,speed of agitation,the pH befere autoclaving with the varies of N,C,pH of medium and bacterial numbers during fermentation process were studies by 14L fermentor.The culture temperature and speed of agitation are in relation to bacterial numbers.The starting pH befere autoclaving of medium bear a relation to pH variation during fermentative process.The culture temperature,speed of agitation and starting pH value have an effct on N,C of the medium.Technological process of preparation type of Bacillus thuringiensis has been defined.
Four new species of sawflies from China are described in this paper.Three of them are forest insect pests.The type specimens are deposited in the collection of forest insects in the Research Institute of Forestry CAF.1.Acantholyda flavalbimarginata n.sp.(figs.1,2,3) Host: Pinus yunnanensis Franch.Holotype,Yunan Province,Huaping County,6.XI.1989,Wong Yong-xian,1800m.Allotype,same as holotype.Paratypes 4,4,same as holotype.The new species is related to Acantholyda flavomarginata Maa,but differs from the latter in the yellowish white lateral parts of terga,in the yellowish white parts of 1~7 stera and in the color patterns of the adult head.2.Eutomostethus nigritus n.sp.(figs.4,5) Host: Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex H.de Lehaie.Holotype,Zhejiang Province,Deqing County,5.IX.1986,Wong Maozhi.Allotype,same as holotype.Paratypes 3,4,same as holotype.The new species is closely related to Eutomostethus gagathinus (Klug),but it can be separated from the latter by the yellowish first and second tarsite of the fore and middle legs,and by the fact that there is no coriaceous spot in the second cubital cell.3.Nematus hequensis n.sp.(figs.6,7,8) Host: Populus×canadensis Moench (P.euramericana (Dode) Guinier),Salix gordejevii Chang et Skov.Holotype,Shanxi Province,Hequ County,1980,Yan Juexing ang Zhao Fengyuan.Allotype,same as holotype.Paratypes 3,3,same as holotype;2,1,Nei Mongol Autonomous Region,Ih Ju League (Dong-sheng County),11.VIII.1985,Gao Fenglin.The reddish yellow head,thorax,and the features of the lancet and the penis valve make this species very easily recognizable from all its known palaearctic congeners.4.Pristiphora huangi n.sp.(figs.9,10) Host: peach,cherry,plum,pear.Holotype,Fujiang Province (Shaxian County),16.V .1976,Huang Bong-kan.Allotype,same as holotype;Paratypes 1,3,same as holotype;1,Jiangsu Province (Nanjing City),1952.The new species resembles Pristiphora moesta (Zaddach) but differs from the latter in the black prothorax,in the pale brown and nearly translucent wings,in the dark brown costal cells and the obsolete Sc,and in the different structures of the lancet and the penis valve.
Leaves with systemic symptoms of ring or irregular spots or leaf scorch and deformation (PV-1) and rolling leaves with chlorosis deformation (PV-2),were collected from Beijing,Hunan and Henan province.The poplar viral sap can infect Nicotiana tobacum,N.glutinosa and other herbaceous plants.The observation on the morphology of the particles,serological reaction and symptom expressions of various hosts,(PV-1) and (PV-2) were considered to be CMV and TMV.The results of artificial inoculation of the two viruses to the poplar leaves showed that 12 clones of poplar were resistant;6 clones were susceptible and 2 clones were moderately susceptible.
Ogma hechuanensis n.Sp.was Collected from soil around roots of Citrus sp.in Hechuan County,Sichuan Province,China.This species differs distinctly from all the other Ogma spp.described.Female body longer,751~967um,gently curved ventrad.Lip region rounded with four large submedian lobes.Head annuli two,smooth and set off from the body.The first annulus,divided into 4,5 or 8 sectors (usually 4),much larger than the second in diameter,but smaller than the third one (the first body annulus).On the third annulus 8-10 scales presrnt.The number of rows increases to 10-13 (regularly 11-12) in the middle of the body and decreases at the vulva region.Stylet stronger,117-138um long while cone is 85-105um.Distance from head end to excretory pore,to the end of esophagus and to vulva 225-286 (253),167-211 (192) and 678 -884 (777) um,respectively.Ovary extends forward and some even exceed stylet knob.R=64-74 (69).Rcxp=19-22 (21).Vulva and anus near tail end,Rv=5-7 (6),Ra=2-4 (3).Tail tip rounded with several scales.a=9.5-13.6 (11.7),b=3.9-4.8 (4.4),c=17.7-33.7 (23.3),v=88.9-92.6 (90.9).Male and juvenile forms unknown.Ogma hechuanensis n.sp.is related to O.querci,but differs in the diameter of two head annuli,rows of scales in middle body,stylet length,R,and other characteristics.Type habitat and location: soil around roots of Citrus sp.in Hechuan County,Sichuan Province,China.All slides are deposited in the Lab.of Forest Pathology,Inst.of Forest Res.,Chinese Academy of Forestry,Beijing,China.
Damage level by Hemiberlesia pitysophila was classified based on the survival rate of needles of 2-year-old branches,shape of shoot and growing potential.Its accurate rate was up to 87.75% which was verified by current annual increment of stem analysis of 60 mean sample-trees.The comprehensive investigation of different subjects,which was done in 60 plots of 9 survey areas distributing over 6 counties and cities (Huidong,Shenzhen etc.),has revealed that light to medium damage to the forest floor most is the herb association group and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa association where the soil layer is deep,loose and rich,while relative serious to serious damage is Dicranopteris linearis association,Digitaria sanguinalis and D.linearis codom-inant association and in the top of the hill where the soil is poor and highly acidic.Among the factors of the stand,the relationship between canopy and damage level is represented by a polynomial second power equation and the lightest damage occurs in the forest of 0.5~0.65 canopy density.Water-vapour pressure also has a polynomial second power equation with canopy density and the lowest pressure value is obtained in the forest of 0.5~0.65 canopy density.Therefore,a resonable pruning,thinning and controlling canopy density between 0.5-0.65 may enhance the resistance of the forest against Hemiberlesia pitysophila.
Besaia goddrica (Schaus),one of the main pests of the bamboos,attacks the species of Phyllostachys and has been observed in the wide areas on the south of the Yangtze River as well as in Shanxi Province.With four generations per year in Zhejiang province,the pest insect overwinters on bamboos by larvae which may feed on the foliage occasionally at warm noon in winter,but normally eat more in the next March.The adults appear in bamboo groves from early April to early June,early June to mid-July,early August to early September and,mid-September to early November respectively.The larvae feed on the foliage from late April to early July,late June to late August,mid-August to mid-October and,early October to the next early April.The mean feeding amount of the leaves per larva in each one of the four generations is respectively up to 411.85,390.02,335.85 and 324.95cm2 in area.Each female adult may lay eggs varying from 80 to 490.There are more than ten natural enemies attacking the pest,mainly including Trichogramma sp.,Telenomus sp.,Campoplex sp.,Exorista civilis,Sirthenea ilavipes and Enicospilus sp.,The effective control of the pest can be achieved by the measures of tending of bamboo groves,light-trapping,and application of DDVP smoke generator.
Pyralidae is a big family of moths in jianfengling.Where more than 360 species have been collected in the investigations of insect fauna,in which 95 species belonging to 61 genera,8 sub-families had been identified,amounting to over a quarter of the whole species.The Pyraus-tinae is a dominant sub-family and the Botyodes,Sylepta,Dichocrocis as well as Diaphania are of dominant genera while ten species of Diaphania strialis Wang,D.annulata (Fabricius) and Phlyctaenia tyres Cramer and others are of dominant species.In the ecological distribution of Pyralidae,a lot of species are concentrated in the tropical semi-deciduous monsoon forest and the tropical mountain rainforest.Dynamic change in quantity of the images of dominant species appears mostly in the second half of the year,particularly,in September.
Chinese gallnut caused by gall aphids is an important industrial raw material.Horned gall aphid,Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell),is widely distributed over the south part of China.About eighty percent of the gallnuts is formed by the aphid.Unfortunately,the aphid has almost been uncultivated.It is well known that the aphid,its overwintering hosts,some species of mosses,and its summer host tree must exist side by side in the Chinese gallnut woodland.If anyone of them is absent in the woodland,the gallnut would not be developed.But how much of them are suitable to high yield of the gallnut? A first study has been made on the relationship of the gallnut yield to the aphid population and the density of the overwintering host,Plagiamnium maximoviczii (Lindb.) T.Kop.,i.e.Mnium maximoviczii Lindb.,and the summer host,Rhus chinenses Mill.It has been suggested that the gallnut woodland with 375-450m2 of the moss,3 750 of the host tree and 25-35 millon of the autumn migrant of the aphid inoculated on the moss in the last autumn per ha are able to get a high yeild of the gallnut in the natural conditions.
The sawfly,Hemichroa crocea (Geoffrey) is a new forest insect pest in China.It severely defoliates the alder Alnus cremastogyne Burk in Sichuan Province.There are two generations per year in Wusheng County.Full-grown larvae drop to the ground.Here they spin cocoons in the top 3~5 cm of soil and aestivate or overwinter as prepupae.The adults of the second generation emerge in the following mid-March when the temperature is above 12℃ and the larvae appear during late March.The adults of the first generation emerge in late October when the temperature is at about 15℃.The larvae of the second generation appear during early November and mature in late November.The use of 80% Dichlorvos at a dilution of 1:2000,or 25% Sha-Chong-Shuang of 1=800,or 40% Omethoate of 1:1500,or 40% ZML Fenvalerate of 1:12000 in controlling the first to third instar larvae reached very high mortality.Besides,digging up the soil in which the pest aestivate or overwinter could destroy the prepupae and the pupae.
A study on the radiation and leaf area vertical distribution in relation to the growth of 8-year-old Chinese fir plantations of 5 densities was conducted.The leaf area vertical distribution and LAI were closely related to stem density.The crown form varies from conic to cylindric with the increase of stem density.The LAI rises at first and then declines with the increase of density.The extinction of radiation sharpened when the crown density increased.The extinction leveled at the depth of 3/4 forest heights from the tops of forest canopies.Calculating the extinction coefficients by means of accumulated leaf area index separately for each crown layer can minimize the errors caused by the irregularity of leaf distribution.Four indices,i.e.,absorption of radiation,LAI,biomass of individual tree and averaged annual increment of biomass were used to have a comprehensive evaluation on the growth of Chinese fir of 5 densities.The results showed that the plantation with a stem density of 2m×1 m was the best one among the 5 young plantations.
B/W aerial photos of the scale 1:2600 were adopted in a test area of Changbeishan Mountain,Jilin Province.Its purpose was to investigate the feasibility of using stereoscopic measurement on air photos to replace some of field work of tree measuration,for the comparision of practical measuration result with that on air photos.The growth classes were divided for the calipered living stocks.And the proportion of suppressed trees that couldn't be identified on the air photos was worked out.The compensation table for the unmeasured trees was established according to the measuration regularity on air photos.The average square error of the experiment on tree height measurement was ±1.07m.The large scale air photos showed a bright practical prospect.
Many researchers in the world have been paying more and more attention to the studies of nitrate reductase (NR) activity in trees.This paper provided recent approaches in NR research.Prospect for its application in forestry was promising and the present situation of our country's NR research was discussed.After making a review of the international tendency,A suggestion was made to the study of NR application.
Adventitious buds formation was tested in 21 media with shoot segments of 8 clones of Populus tomentosa.Considerable variation was found in the response of adventitious buds formation among clones.Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation existed between clonal response of adventitious buds formation and clonal growth response (r=0.86**,a=0.01).This suggests clone selection in vitro for growth is possible.Clonal response of adventitious buds formation was also significantly correlated with the contents of some endogeous hormones and amino acids (r=0.70-0.76*,a=0.02).While negative correlation occured between clonal response of adventitious buds formation and clonal rooting ability of cuttings in fields.Composition of medium strongly affected the behavior of cultures.
This paper analysed the response of hybridization of individual trees of Populus ussuriensis and P.suaveolens collected randomly from the same provenance.The results showed that there were significant variation among individual trees within P.ussuriensis or P.suaveolens in morphology,biology and genotype.There were significant differences in the compatibility,growth and phenology of F: of individual trees within P.ussuriensis or P.suaveolens and the same male hybridization.In this study,satisfactory results were achieved from the immature seeds in vitro culture.
In this paper,content of main nutrient elements (N,P,K,Ca,Mg),nutrient translocation,litter and its rate of weight loss during the period of one year in the pure young stand of Cunninghamia lanceolata and the young mixed-stand of C.lanceolata and Michelia macclurei were investigated.From these data,the conceptions of translocation and cycle of the nutrient element,in different stands were obtained.The results showed that the rate of translocation of nutrient elements in the needle leaves of C.lanceolata in pure stands is larger than that in the mixed stand,N contrary.The amount of litter in the mixed stands of C.lanceolata and M.macclurei is larger than that in the pure stands of C.lanceolata,the former is 1 039.95kg/ha.a,the latter 67.00 kg/ha.a.The rate of litter weight loss of C.lanceolata in pure stand and mixed-stand are 80.12% and 81.08% respectively.The rate of litter weight loss of M.macclurei is 59.17%.Because the speed of cycle of nutrient elements in the mixed-stand is faster than that in the pure stand,it is beneficial to improve the soil.Therefore,M.macclurei as a tree species for mixed-stand is suitable.
The floristic feature and geographical distribution of Acer in Zhejiang is described in the present paper.It is concluded that Zhejiang,especially the northwest mountains,is a refugium and an active differentiating regioa of Acer.The species in the province are mainly the endemic elements of China,others are the temperate Asian and the East Asian (Sino-Japanese) elements.Most of them belong to Southwest,Central,and East Chinese Floristics,distributed in the mountainous belt of the evergreen-deciduous broad-leaf mixed forest,the deciduous broad-leaf and the needle-broad-leaf mixed forest,a few belong to South Chinese Floristics,distributed in the mountainous evergreen broad-leaf forest belt in southeast and south area of the province.Finally,the original region of the genus is discussed.It's considered that the tropical to south subtropical Indo-Chinese region is the primitive original centre of the genus,Hengduan Mountains to Central China is the strongly active differentiating region of most of the deciduous sections and series.
seven methods were used to test the spatial distributin patterns of population of Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi in the young plantations of Pinus massoniana.The results showed that the distribution patterns of H.Pitysophila belongs to an aggregated distrbution.Variance analyses were used to statistics the insect population on different position and stratification levels of the tree crown.The results showed there was no significant difference in the test.
This article discussed the wilting coefficient of seedling in different soil textures and seedling standards for four planting species.Some of the important results have been achieved.In the loam soil,the permanent wilting coefficient of Pinus tabulaeformis and Acer truncatum are higher,about 24.5% and 25.1% respectively.There are significant difference caused by the soil texture and the seedling standard for Platycladus orientalis in loam soil.Its permanent wilting coefficient is about 19.9% for untransplanting seedling at 1.5 years,21.5% for untransplanting seedling at 2.5 years,19.2% for transplanting seedling by 2.5 years.But in sandy loam soil,it is about 12.8%,behind that in the loam.Meanwhile,the temporary wilting coefficient was also a testing factor and the periods of suffering drought has been recorded in this experiment.The wilting coefficient and soil water content were expressed in soil relative water content.
The dry-hot valley in Yunnan refer to both mountainous-hilly land and wide flat areas along Jinsha,Lancang and Nujiang valleys,distributed between 23°01'~27°20' of north latitude,and 85°45'~103°20' of east longitude,with elevation under 1 600 meters.In such areas,specific climate types and vegetation forms are established under the influence of both planetary circulation and topography,and there exist plants for some particular purposes,among which are plants for lac host and fibres,wild fruit trees and grass crops.Some of them,such as Phyllanthus emblica,Cajanus cajan,Zizyphus mauritiana are to be further exploited for their value of use.If used properly and reasonably,these plants can be renewed naturally and cultured for their capacity of regeneration,or otherwise,the results will be the exhaustion of plant resources and further soil erosion.
Seeds selected from 73 Chinese Fir families in ten provinces or regions were tested at Fuyang of Zhejiang and Yantai of Shandong for investigation on cold hardiness of Chinese Fir seedlings and selection of the families with cold resistance.The results are as follows: (1) Variations in the rates of freeze and terminal bud,and height of seedlings were very significant among families,and it was found that there were evident interactions between the two experimental sites on the three traits.There was a high negative genetics correlation between the rates of freeze injury and terminal bud,and both characters were slightly corrlated with the height growth of seedlings.(2) There were evident variations in the rates of freeze injury and terminal bud among zones,in which the rate of freeze injury was gradually reduced from the south to the north,whereas the rate of terminal bud was to the contrary;the genetic variance component of provenances outweighed that of families within provenances in the two properties.(3) There was a comparatively high heritability in the rates of freeze injury and terminal bud of seedlings.(4) By means of selecting the rates of freeze injury and terminal bud,15 families with better cold hardiness were obtained,which mostly came from the north of central subtropical zone.