1995 Vol. 8, No. 3
The multiple-use potential of mangrove wetland has been presented in the paper.The mangrove stems, which can grow 9～10 m3/(hm2·a)in the stand,can be used as building material,furniture,paper pulp,fiber,charcoal and so on.Many other products can also be obtained from mangroves, such as tannin, medicine, perfume, food and forage.The stands can enhance the output of marine products,cutting down 9～10 times of sea tide velocity and raising 1～2 times of silt deposition velocity.In addition,mangrove areas are suitable place for waterbird rest, ecotourism and recreation.7 nature reserves(6 781 hm2 areas) of mangrove wetland have been established,which have undertaken the protection,research and afforestation of the wetlands so that the recovery and development of mangrove have been promoted in China.
This paper reports the results of a two-year research on growth response to fertilization in young Cunninghamia lanceolata,Pinus elloittii, Eucalyptus urophylla plantations.For Chinese fir,the growth response was significant to the application of P,PK,NP and NPK,and the highest growth appeared in the treatment applied with 25 kg/hm2 of P2O5,which resulted in an increase of 24% in height and 30% in basal diameter.The growth response of slash pine is remarkable to P,PN and PK,The height and basal diameter of slashpine were promoted by 74% and 69% by the application of 50 kg P2O5+50 kg N/hm2,and 72% and 65% by the application of 50 kg P2O5+50 kg K2O/hm2.For Eucalyptus urophylla,the growth response was significant to treatments NPK,NP and NK with the highest growth increment in NPK,height increased by 245%,basal diameter by 279%and DBH by l156%in treament l00 kg N+100 kg P2O5+50 kg K2O/hm2.
The mature embryos of Pinus massoniana were used as explants to induce adventitious buds on GD、SH、MS or MCM medium supplemented with 0.5～4.0 mg/LBA and 0.0～1.0 mg/L IAA.It has been showed that the basic medium played a determinative role in initiating the adventitious buds.The optimal combination of the medium was GD+2.0 mg/LBA without IAA,on which over seventy percent of explants was induced.The addition of IAA or NAA was disadvantageous to the formation of adventitious buds.By adding optimal concentration of IBA in the growth medium,the elongation of the adventitous buds was improved.The elongated shoots were induced to produce adventitious roots on 1/2 GD medium supplemented with 4.0mg/LIB Both the plantlets and mycorrhizal fungi Rt 49 were inoculated on l/2 GD medium simultaneously.The mycorrhizal fungi infected the root tips and then mycorrhizae formed.
Daemonorops mergariate seedlings were artificially inoculated with Glemus epigaeum Daniels & Trappe.After one-year inoculation,the seedlings were measured.The results showed that the infection rates are 43.7%～81.25%,the growth of rattan seedlings was promoted,especially when inoculated with the fungus and suitable fertilizers together.All the number and length of leaves, root length, shoot biomass and root biomass increased to a certain degree.Shoot biomass increases evidently with 65.3% in comparison with the control.The statistic test indicate that there is obviously a significant difference between inoculation and control.Inoculation treatment shows that there is 1.13 times of P content inroot as compared with that in control.
The analyses of differences among provenances and families, the genetic variation and genetic correlation on the growth and quality characters for 3 provenances and 50 open-pollination families of Eucalyptus tereticornis were carried out.The results showed there were highly significant differences among provenances and families on the main characters of E.tereticornis.The differences among provenances were bigger than those among familieswithin provenance.Laura provenance from Queensland of Australia was superior to other provenances on the main characters.The growth and quality characters of E.tereticornis families were moderately or strongly hereditary.Branch height,stem straightness and corwn had highly significant genetic correlations with the growth characters.The five families of E.tereticornis with fast growth and higher quality were selected by the lndex Selection Method and the genetic gain in the selective index values reached 22.23%.
The success of the artificial inoculation of pines with the vegetative inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius (pt) is confirmed by means of making a comparison of cultures between reisolates from ectomycorrhizae formed and mother isolate inoculated, and an identification of sporocarps connected with the ectomycorrhizae;the gross form and anatomy structure of the ectomycorrhizae formed after inoculation are described by using the photos from the experiment.It is discovered that the typical ectomycorrhizae fungus, pt can form ectendomycorrhizae with pines under the condition of artificial inoculation in nursery.The application experiments conducted in nurseries give evidence that inoculum made by the Center for Mycorrhizal Research and Development,CAF is effective in increasing ectomycorrhizae,promoting the growth and improving the biomass of the seedlings,100% seedlings of four pines receiving vegetative Ptinoculum have got pt ectomycorrhizae with pt index 88+,the yield of plantable seedlings increased by more than 14.6%,and height,root-collar diameter, biomass, the number and the total length of the lateral root for the ten-month-old seedlings increased,on the average,by 28.1%～71.4%, 22.8%～49.2%, 149.2%～457.1%,150.0%～200.0% and 82.4%～101.1% respectively.
Based on the preliminary selection of stem volume and wood basic density, 30 superior seed sources of 12-year-old were selected for pulping test.The results showed that there were remarkable differences for the most wood chemical components, pulp and papermaking properties among different seed sources.Through a comprehensive analysis on the profits and costs per dry tons of pulp from different seed sources, it was found that 6 seed sources including Chongyi of Jiangxi,Qinqi of Guangxi, Luoding, Yinde, and Chaoguan of Guangdong and Yongding of Fujian are the optimum ones for paper-pulp wood of masson pine.These optimum seed sources are distributed over the southeastern end of Nanling Mountains,eastern side of Yunkai Hill and southern end of Wuyi Mountains.
According to the data of provenance tests of 42 Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenances,growth of the young plantations of 4～8-year-old and their relation with the geographical location of the origins were analyzed.The results show:(1)among the different provenances, the height growth is obviously different, the DBH and volume growth are different,too,with only one exception;(2)the seeds from low latitude show a quick growth,but those from high altitude show a slow growth,and those from the coast show a good growth but those from the inland area show a bad growt;(3)after a comprehensive index,judgement,provenance No.13663, 13692, 12501, 13928, 13935, 17297 and 15050 were selected, most of them come from the coastal area of Australia,3 of them from Queensland,2 of them from North Australia,and the other 2 from West Australia.
A study on the use of landsat-5 TM data to conduct the land use auto-classification in a large area was carried out in Xixian County, Shanxi Province.A method of integrated supervised classification with unsupervised calssification is proposed.The precision of classification is improved.The results are very satisfactory.The study provided a new efficient approach to apply remote sensing data in practice.
Since 1984,12 Califoria cultivars of Juglans regia, 4 black walnut species(J.major,J.hindsii,J.nigra,J.microrarpa)and paradox(J.hindsii×J.regia)have been evaluated in China.12 California cultivars of J.regia were regarded as phenologically late season,0～18 days later than the local cultivars for budbreaking.Among them, Vina,Chico and Amigo are more precocious and high yieldi.The J.nigra tree is 5 m high and over l4 cm in diameter at the age of 6 on the most favorable sites in Henan,China;6-year-old paradox tree were 6.5 m in height and 18.5 cm in diameter growing vigoyously on dry,rocky and shallow soil in mountain area,Beijing,China.
The relationship between the tree age and the amount of biomass of different organs of average tree could be expressed by a Logistics function.The biomass and net productivity of various organs and the whole forest increased with the increase of age and was represented by a parabola,so was the composition ratio of the main stem,while that of branch,leaf and bark decreased.The average maximum increment of biomass of sample tree and net productivity of the forest occurred at the age of 31～33,and the annual maximum increment occurred at the age of 20～27.The leaf assimilation rate of stem got the maximum at the age of 24,and decreased rapidly after 33-year-old.As for the content of nutrient elements of different organs,the amount of Ca was the largest,and that of N and K the second,while that of P and Mg the leas The nutrient amount in leaf was the largest,and that in stem the least.More than 80% of nutrients were concentrated in the branch,leave,bark and root.It is suggested that the clear cutting age should be not more than 33-year-old,and the cutting remains should be left in the field to maintain the soil fertility instead of moving away.
After many times experiments,it was found that sand culture was the best way for young branch propagation of Casuarina in the condition of no or little direct sunlight, such as in room or under shade.Average rooting rate was 94% and the highest 100%.Under sunlight, water culture was better than the others.Sand culture could be used more widely than water culture, and suitable propagation season for sand culture was from April to October and suitable temperature was 25～30℃.The best IBA pre-treatment concentration for Casuarina young branches was 20～60ppm.The difference of rooting rates of severalspecies was obvious.Casuarina equisetifolia had the strongest ability for rooting, and C.glauca was the second; C.cunninghumiana was the third and C.junghuniana was difficult to root.Rooting rate difference of the branches from 1 to 4 year old mother trees in orchard was not obvious in sand culture.
According to the data of eight site factors and nine interaction factors of 290 investigation plots of Pinus massoniana plantation in Zhejiang, the regression with interaction factors and quantitative theory Ⅰ were used in the calculation(the uneffective variables were picked off).The site factors, such as:altitude,thickness of soil and fertility of the first layer,slope position,orientation of slope etc.of north slope of Wu Yi Shan Mountain, Tian Mu Shan Mountain, Eastern and Western hill area of Zhejiang were analyzed by statistics.The statistics test on distrepance standard deviation, variance ratio,mnultiole correlation and partial correlation shows:the result of quatitative method is the most precise one.
The damage and performance of the bamboo shoot weevil,Otidognathus davidis Fair.on different bamboo species were investigated under multi-selection and non-selection conditions.The insect showed distinct host selection behavior and caused damagesvarying with different species under multi-selection.The 54 species belong to 6 genera in the Anji Bamboo BotanicaI Garden located in Zhejiang Province, which could be divided into three groups based on cluster analysis of damage indexes.The mean index was 38.8 for g1,21.8 for g2 and 7.3 for g3 rexpectively.Under non-selection, however, the adult weevil displayed similar performance in survival, feeding and egg-laying in laboratory reared with Phyllostachys species.Based on these results,the authors discuss the host range, host selection behavior and potential factors of tlie hosts effecting the performances of the insect.
The world's forest vegetation has been playing an active role in the process of geosphere and biosphere.It is the“sink”of matters and the“pool”of certain energy accumulation in the process of material circulation and energy transfer in the near-earth atmosphere,meanwhile it is also the“source”of some other materials and certain energy release.Furthermore,it is the important passage for material circulation and energy transfer of bioproduction stocks and the atmosphere-vegetation-soil system.The global forest ecosystem is regarded as the most diversified terrestrail ecosystem,adapted to the wide range of climatical zones,from frigid to tropic with various tree and shrub species as its main components.Forest ecosystem is a terrestrail ecosystem of most complicated time-space structure with large capacity of feed-back and self-organization,i.e.larger elasticity and stability.This system possesses the most enormous biomass and biological productivity among all the terresterial ecosystems, which is the principal part of the land photosynthesis production.Owing to its complicated passages for mass circulation and energy transfer,the system itself can maintain the systemstability and biological productivity,which plays an important roie in biogeochemical circulation of biogeosphere.So far,the research on the structure and function of forest ecosystem is still of the first tasks in respect of relationship between global changes and world forest ecosystem.
One of the developmental tendencies in modern paper-making industry is that more timber materials are put in use.However, straw pulp was the main materials in paper-making in the past years due to the lacking of wood resources in China.Bamboo timber,having a fibre content of 40%～60% with an average length of 2 mm and being a kind of long-fibre timber, is a kind of excellent material for making high-quality paper.More bamboo has been put in use as paper-making material, instead of wood, which will give a solution to the problem of lacking of excellent pater-making material.Besides, some ideas and suggestions for China's paper-making industry should be emphasized,e.g.,bamboo bases should be established; sympodial bamboos suitable for paper-making usage should be planted around the factories while moso bamboo should be intensively cultivated; the research on bamboo paper-making should be strengthened to promote its development.
tree species (including Mytilaria laosensis, Gmelina arhaea,Michelia macclurei,Castanopsis hystrix, Tectona grandis and Pinus elliottii)have been planted in the same site in Xiashinazhao Mountain, Guangxi Province.Through a successive observation for 5 years, the results were as follows: 1.Except T.grandis, the other 5 species can grow well there.But the increment volume of the trees are different when they are growing on different parts of the slope, for example,the growing volume of G.arborea(7-year-old) at the lower part of the slope is 192.44 m3/hm2, while those at the middle and the upper part are 121.33、51.10 m3/hm2 respectively.The increment of broadleaf trees decreases with the raising of the location of the slope.The order for the reduced volume from the biggest to the smallest is C.hystrix,M.macclurei,G.arborea and M.laosensis.As for P.elloittii,the effect is not obvious.2.The effect of cultivation of different tree species on the soil properties varied.The volume weights of soil at the places where G.arborea,M.laosensis or P.elloittii was planted are heavier than those where C.hystrix or M.macclurei was planted, while the porosity and water holding capacity of soil are on the contrary to the above result.The organic nutrient of soil at the places where M.macclurei or G.arborea was planted is 10%～67%higher than those of the others.The content of soil available phosphorous at the place where G.arborea was planted is the lowest while the content of soil available potassium where M.laosensis was planted is the lowest.3.The soil volume weight and content of mineral elements of the barren hills are bigger than those of the afforested land.The content of organic nutrient is being increased with the increase of loseness of canopy.
Yuanmao Plateau is a typical dry-hot river valley area in Yunnan Province.In the year 1991 and 1992,a total area of 114 hm2 of water and soil conservation forest was cultivated.The main technical measures are:selection of 13 suitable tree species, 1 species of grassrattan;site treatment(size 60 cm×60 cm,spacing 200～300 cm);seedling culture using big nutrition-bag(12 cm×14 cm or 13 cm×15 cm);planting season,late June to July;adopting a multi-structure of arbor,shrub and grass.3 year later after cultivation,the effect of wa-ter and soil conservation was satisfactory.It contributed a lot to the multieconomy in thecounty and helped the development of lac production and agriculture.
WINGIS,which is a geography information system based on micro-computer system,was developed with the Borland C++language,which is an object-oriented program language under the Windows operating system.The WINGIS makes full use of the advantages which the Windows provides, and gets rid of all kinds of the restrictions on which the DOS imposed. The WINGIS has an excellent user interface and high efficiency to process spatial and attribute data,and can be widely used in agriculture,forestry,hydrology etc.
This paper deals with the planting tests of Ⅰ-69 on the saline soil of Ningbo coastal plain.Results show that moderate limit salt content is 0.15% and upper limit content is 0.34%.The saline tolerance of Ⅰ-69 increases obviously as tree grows.In addition,through seedling nursing in the saline soil the saline tolerance of Ⅰ-69 can be raised.