2004 Vol. 17, No. 3
This paper was concerned with monitoring of the farmland being returned to forests using Quickbird high resolution satellite data. And the returned farmland was investigated according to plan map supported by the GIS system. The relative data such as land patch area, land patch type and non-afforestation area were derived. An attempt was made to identify small trees within the returned farmland. In order to increase the identification rate, a NDVI transformation was performed to enhance the returned farmland vegetation.Unsupervised Classification base on an ISODATA decision rule of a fused image was used to create a map illustrated with different type of land patches. The area of different types of landuse and their percentage were calculated. The results showed that the detailed landcover such as boundary of crown of a tree, ribbing and compost could be extracted from the imagery.
Pot experiments in 3 phosphorus levels were conducted with 5 masson pine (Pinus massoniana) provenances in various areas to study the differences of root morphology and dry matter allocation of these provenances under low-phosphorus stress. The results showed that the aggravation of phosphorus deficiency would lead to the decline of the dry matter accumulation and main root parameters, while the allocation of dry matter to roots and the relative value of root parameters would obviously increase. Under low phosphorus stress, there existed significant differences between provenances tested for the dry matter accumulation and root parameters such as number of lateral roots. It was found that the provenance from Wuping of Fujian with the highest productivity under low phosphorus was an excellent provenance with the least sensitivity to phosphorus supply,followed by that from Xinyi of Guangdong and Chun'an of Zhejiang.This result was similar to that from field trials and liquid culture experiment. Genetic correlation analysis demonstrated that the provenances with extensive lateral root systems and more fibrous roots had greater dry matter accumulation. Some root parameters such as root volume, number and total length of lateral roots, and number of fibrous roots could be regarded as the efficient indexes for screening excellent provenances with high phosphorus efficiency in low phosphorus stress.
Based on the data of height growth in 5 plots with different densities,mixed and nlmixed of SAS were used to fit the linear and non-linear mixed models of tree height growth respectively.The height growth curve and mean height growth curve under different densities were drawn according to calculated value and fixed effect value,which showed the advantages of the mixed model,i.e.it could reflect the mean variation trend on the 5 plots and the differences among individuals at the same time.
According to the reference crop potential evapotranspiration model （FAO-Penman-Monteith）,which modified by crop coefficient,radiation stress coefficient and wind speed reduced coefficient,the wheat potential evapotranspiration (ETpp) model in an apple-wheat intercropping in the hilly land of Taihang Mountain was developed.
Based on the techniques of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (SSR) marker, a hybrid molecular linkage map of Populus deltoides×P. cathayana was constructed. 19 major groups, 16 doublets, 7 triplets and 5 small groups were identified in this map.356 AFLP makers and 12 SSR markers, total 368 makers, were ordered on the 19 major groups. This map covered 3 382.4 cM of genome length, and the average distance between two markers was 9.69 cM. The estimated genome length was between 2 607 cM and 3 319 cM and was 3 042 cM in average. The expected genome coverage was calculated and it was 96.7% with the equation of Lander,and it was 98.4% with method of Bishop et al.
As a meteor, sand and dust storm results from a special atmospheric movement. But weather was not the only factor, the earth's surface had made a significant effect on its forming and development. It's qualitative to predict sand and dust storm, so Fisher's discriminant was used to analyze historical data of wind and sandstorm in the Hunshandake area. Based on the available high-quality surface and meteorological observation data from 1988 to 2001, the predictors were analyzed by stepwise method to build linear equations of different groups.The testing ratio of the equations were 79.4%.
The light-light curve and CO2 curve of 7 potted climbing shrub species,Wisteria sinensis, Euonymus fortunei,Parthenocissus tricuspidata, P. quinquefolia, Polygonum aubertii,Campsis radicans and Lonicera japonica, were determined by Dysprosium light illumination. Light compensation point （LCP）, light saturation point （LSP）, Pn,Φ,CO2 compensation point and RuBisco relativity of the 7 climbing shrub species were analyzed comparatively. The correlation of shade tolerance with Pn,Φ and CO2 utilization ability were discussed by multi-factor analyzing. The results showed that different climbing shrub specie had different light utilization characteristics. Euonymus fortunei, Lonicera japonica and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had low LCP, meanwhile they had lower LSP. They could use low light quantum, and had strong shaded-tolerance. Polygonum aubertii had limited shaded-tolerance because of its low LCP and high LSP, broader light quantum could be used effectively. Wisteria sinensis, Campsis radicans and Parthenocissus tricuspidata had higher LCP and LSP, they were sun climbing shrub. A significantly positive correlation was found between LCP and Pn,LCP and RuBisco relativity. A negative correlation was found between LCP and Φ. The ability of shade-tolerance of the 7 climbing shrub species followed the order of Euonymus fortuneiLonicera japonica=Parthenocissus quinquefoliaPolygonum aubertiiWisteria sinensisParthenocissus tricuspidataCampsis radicans.
Taking the dry seeds of Poa pratensis Nassau carried by SZ-3 as the treatment and the seeds which on the earth as CK,three mutations were screened based on presentational characters from the plants treatment and asexual reproduction as PM1,PM2 and PM3.The effect of the space condition on the anatomical characters of the leaves and the ioszyme of peroxidase and esterase in leaves were observed and investigated.The results showed that compared to CK,the width of the leaves of the three mutations increased as the number of epidermis increased,the thickness of the leaves reduced as the average diameter of the mesophyllous cells decreased.The number of the bulliform cells in the leaves of PM2 and PM3 increased which changed the shape of the leaves.The results of the ioszyme of esterase showed that there were 11 bands in CK and the Rf value was 4.63%～47.22%;21 bands in PM1 and Rf value was 2.78%～68.52%;18 bands in PM2 and Rf value was 2.78%～67.59%;20 bands in PM3 and Rf value was 2.78%～63.89%.The results of the ioszyme of peroxidase showed that there were bands in CK and the Rf value was 59.74%～94.81%;8 bands in PM1 and the Rf value was 38.96%～94.81%;7 bands in PM2 and the Rf value was 48.05%～94.81%;8 bands in PM3 and the Rf value was 49.35%～94.81%.There were some same bands both in CK and the mutations,but there were also some other bands changed:some of them existed in the mutations but not in CK;some of them existed in CK but not in the mutations;and the activities of the ioszyme were changed greatly.All of these mutations were valuable to production application and genetic breeding.
In the hilly ground of southern of China,planting pure Pinus massoniana forest has some problems, such as suffering from pest,soil and water erosion,decrease of soil fertility,hard to grow and so on. The pure Pinus massoniana forestpure Schima superba forest and their mixed forest were investigated in Gaoan County of Jiangxi Province. The result showed that:(1)The mean height,diameter and volume of the mixed forest were higher than those of the pure Pinus forests by 30.9%,31.7% and 10.6%,respectively;(2)The mixed forest's biomass was 2.24 times as much as that of the pure Pinus massoniana forest;(3)The litter of mixed forest's was 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as that of the pure Pinus massoniana forest and pure Schima superba forest;(4)The conditions of pest, soil and water erosion,and microclimax were better than in those pure forests;(5)Pinus massoniana and Schima superba interacted each other, which encouraged them to grow fast.Tree by tree,row by row, block netted and star dotted were successful patterns of mixed plantation,the mixture ratio of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba was 5∶1 or 3∶1; the initial density was from 4446 to 6944 per hectare, the distance between trees or rows was 1.2 m,1.5 m or 2.0 m.
The cochineal(Dactylopius confusus) were cultured on cacti collected from ten different counties and the anatomical structure and nutritional components of cacti were analyzed to study the relationship between cochineal and cacti.The results showed that cochineal could host on Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia tuna, and Opuntia stricta,but it grew best on Opuntia ficus-indica,and in the species Opuntia ficus-indica,cochineal grew on cacti that imported from Peru and native cacti in Lufeng County of Yunnan Province were better than that of growing on other cacti, and the cochineal grew on spineless cacti were better than that of growing on spinous cacti. The thicker the epiderm of cacti, the worse the cochineal grew. The cochineal could stimulate development of vascular bundle of cacti. Protein and water content of cacti had significant influence to cochineal growth.
The biomass and nutrient contents of Eucalyptus urophylla cl. MLA plantation with early-stage fertilizer trial established at Kaiping, Guangdong, were measured and analyzed at 6 year old. The results showed that fertilizer applied at early-stage promoted the growth and increasing of biomass of E.urophylla cl. MLA plantation. The treatment with the best increment at 6 year old had the biggest biomass with the biomass on ground of 65.95 t·hm-2 and stem biomass of 54.94 t·hm-2, and 1.65 times and 1.67 times that of the treatment with the biggest fertilizer quantity respectively. The single biomass and stand biomass of E. urophylla cl. MLA plantation might be forecasted by the regression equation established through height, DBH and biomass. N, P and K in foliage had bigger nutrient concentrations. Fertilizers applied had promoted to absorb and accumulate to nutrient elements for E. urophylla clone.
Indicators used to assess forest-based eco-tourism benefit (FBETB) were defermined based on the basic structure, characters of FBETB and the principle of system science.There were 36 indicators including 4 aspects such as resource, environment, economy and society.Quantitative methods for each indicator were brought forward as well.In addition, specific benefit value were also formulated after being divided into 3 kinds.All of these indicators could be used as theoretic base to fulfill sustainable development and management of forest.
Three bacteria fertilizer (E,F,H),chemical tertilizer and the compound of bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer were separately applied on Poa pratensis to inspect their effects to the growth and the cold resistance of turfgrass.The results indicated that bacteria fertilizer and the compound of bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer could both improve cold resistance of turfgrass greatly.The applying of each kind of three fertilizers induced a different degree of positive effect.The effect induced by bacteria fertilizer was better than that of chemical fertilizer and the effect induced by bacteria F and H was better than that of bacteria E.Applying both bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer showed a better effect on general cold resistance than that of applying bacteria fertilizer or chemical fertilizer solely.Study on applying bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer showed a concurrence of the complementarity effect and the unreplacement effect to different indexes on cold resistance enhancement.The applying of both bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer revealed a certain extent of incomplete adding status.The details included:The difference of electrolyte leakage of turfgrass was unsignificance between treating with bacteria fertilizer and treating with chemical fertilizer.But a better growing of taproot and a more contents of soluble sugar was showed in treating with bacteria fertilizer than treating with chemical fertilizer.The activity of peroxidase(POD),the contents of chlorophyll,and amount of fibre of turfgrass were higher in treat bacteria F and H than that of treating with chemical fertilizer,but the effect of treating with bacteria F and H was poor than that of treating with the mixture of bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer.
Using bulb scale as the explant and MS as the basic media, the bulbous projection of Lilium japonicum cv.'Louvre'was induced and cultured with different hormones in differet concentration levels. The result revealed that the best way to induce 'Louvre'was to use its whole scale, whose back was stuck on the medium that contains 2.0 mg·L-1 of 6-BA, 0.2 mg·L-1 of NAA and MS as the explant.The induction of 'Louvre'scale was to produce the bulbous projection which differentiated into seedings, but not to produce it from callus induction. MS containg 0.7 mg·L-1 of 6-BA and 0.3 mg·L-1 of IBA was optimized as the best medium for shoot-tip culture and subculture, and 1/2MS containing 0.3 mg·L-1 of 6-BA and 0.7 mg·L-1 of IBA was optimized as the best medium for rooting culture. The material for transplanting was the combanation of river mud and pearly rock(cubic comparison is 7∶3). The survival rate of Lilium shoots could reach 98%.
A new butt and root rot disease on Acacia confusa in Hainan Province was recorded;Ganoderma tropicum and Amauroderma elmerianum were the pathogens.Both fungi caused a white rot of butt and root. Illustrated descriptions of the two pathogens were given in detail based on the material from China. The characteristics of the pathogens were provided,and the symptom and damage of the disease were supplied.
To an investigation on the wild flowers in Qingyunshan Landscape and Scenic Area, the results showed that there were 192 plant species belonging to 62 Family and 102 Genera. The basic component and the diversity of the wild flower were analyzed. Depend on their growth and characteristics in this Area, its life type was divided and the landscape design was provided. And the suggestion on sustainable utilization was also given.
The relationship between amino acid contents of host trees and Kerria lacca was studied. The results were as follow:1.Amino acid contents among 7 different host trees species and branches hosted or not hosted by Kerria lacca were different. Principal components showed that the amino acid contents of 14 different branches could be divided into 3 groups.2.When the amino acid contents of hosted branch were close to the amino acid contents of annual kusum branch, the thickness of raw lac was thicker; when the amino acid contents of hosted branch were departed from that of annual kusum branch,Kerria lacca had higher mortality and fecundity; the relationship between amino acid contents of hosted branch and the amount lac secreted by per lac insect was complicated. 3.Kerria lacca hosting had some influence on amino acid contents of branch. The entire amino acid contents of hosted branch decreased by 35% comparing to that of control kusum branch, the contents of aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glycine, alanine, isolleucine, tyrosine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine and methionine decreased in different degree. But after hosted by Kerria lacca,the contents of histidine, lysine, arginine and tryptophan were higher than that of control branch. The contents of some kinds amino acid of hosted branch also increased or decreased in other species host trees.
The controlled hybridization between a female Popupus deltoides Marsh.'55/65' and 5 provenances （10 individuals each provenances） of the male P.cathayana produced the hybridization system with multile-level variations for breeding with F1 clones.For 5 years after planted in plantation,115 clones of 25 families were experimented.The growth traits,including height,diameter at breast height and volume,of F1 hybrid clones and their different resistance ability to Dothiorella gregaria （poplar canker） were analyzed.The analysis of variance showed that among F1 hybrid clones,the significant differences of 5-year-old growth traits existed among clones of male-parent P.cathayana from 5 provenances,among families within 5 male-parent provenances and among clones within families.The significant difference of 5-year-old growth among F1 clones showed that the selection potential was greater among F1 clones.On base of growth traits and resistance to D. gregaria,36 super clones were selected and used for multi-traits selection in future.
The activity of PPO of 5 various organs in 4 different growth period of Kernel-apricot was analysed. The results showed that:(1)The activity of PPO of various organs had a orderly change,the activity of PPO of leaves reached the maximum; the activities of PPO of branch, truck, thick root,thin root were higher in May and March than in July and October conspicuously.(2)The activity of PPO was related to cold resistance and growth of the part above the soil surface of Kernel-apricot, and it could be used as biochemical index of adverse circumstances resistance of Kernel-apricot.(3)Cu and Zn,as nutrient elements,had effects on the activity of PPO,so as to affect the growth of Kernel-apricot.
The leaves and stem segments of lemon-scented geranium were cultured in tubes as explants. The results showed that stem segments had a better effect in inducing differentiation. The most appropriate culture mediums were:(1) the medium of inducing clump sprouts was MS+BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1;(2)the media of step-generation culture was MS+BA 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1; (3)the root-producing medium was 1/2MS.
According to the investigation and analysis of Cupressus funebris forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, there were 11 kinds of community type of Cupressus funebris forest. The vertical structure of the Cupressus funebris community was complicated, it could be divided into tree layer, shrub layer and herbaceous layer; The richness,diversity and evenness of populations in different gradient followed the pattern of shrublayertree layerherbaceous layer,but no pattern was found in altitude gradient.
The effects of harvesting 1/3 of the leaves, 2/3 of the leaves, and 3/3 of the leaves on the growth of A.truncatum were studied. The results showed that the harvest quantity and harvest season significantly affected the tree height, base diameter,leaf area and leaf biomass dry weight, but there was no significant difference on the crown. There were positive effects of harvest quantity increase on growth of the tree. The effects of harvest leaf in June were more than in April, and in April were more than in August. Harvest 3/3 of leaves in April significantly harmed the increment of tree height,basal diameter,leaf area and leaf biomass dry weight. Harvest leaf in June significantly affected the increment of the tree height, basal diameter,but there was no significant difference on leaf area and leaf biomass dry weight.
The current status of Larix somatic embryogenesis research was summarized, including Larix deciduas,Larix leptolepis, Larix×eurolepis and Larix×leptoeuropaea,Larix occidentalis and Larix principis-rupprechtii.Cryopreservation, protoplasts and gene transformation were described too. In conclusion,further development studies of Larix somatic embryogenesis remain to be done.
Bamboo stands, which are important forest resources in China, play not only great economical roles in main bamboo production areas, but also form world-wide advanced bamboo industry. Current techniques of management focus more on gaining maximum economic profits, but ecological and social benefits are neglected at some extent. This paper summarized the research outcomes of hydrological ecology of bamboo stands and analyzed their important function in environment protection,it was suggested that the study in the field of bamboo ecology must be strengthened. Such techniques as classified management and oriented cultivation should be used so as to make more economic, ecological and social benefits.