2004 Vol. 17, No. 6
The paper was to improve the theory of the uniform angle index,a measure for describing spatial forest structure.The standard angle,which implied absolute regularity of the spatial distribution of the neighboring trees around a reference tree,was an important factor influencing the efficiency of the uniform angle index for describing the spatial distribution of a forest.Based on theoretical arguments,and 100 simulation stands of one ha including (1 000) trees each,a standard angle of 72° was found to be optimal,producing a uniform angle index-mean value of 0.5 in Poisson distributed tree populations.
The strength and distance of edge effects in two secondary tropical montane rainforests at Jianfengling, Hainan Island of China were predicted with a newly proposed model:Y=a+e0[1-(D/Dmax)],where Y was the value of a variable measured;e0 was the maximum value of edge effects;D was the distance from the edge to a point at which Y was recorded; Dmax was the distance from the edge to the point at which edge effects reached zero;and α was a constant. The species richness of plants with diameter at breast height less than 5 cm obtained from 44 plots of 4 m2 in two forests each containing a secondary forest after clear-cut and a remined forest was used to fit the model and the following results were obtained.The edge effects in the tropical montane rainforests were well described by the proposed model;The maximum distance (Dmax) at which edge effects reached zero was,in general,less than 15 m;and at the same plot,the edge effects on species richness of the remaining forests and on that of the secondary-forests after clear cut were not significantly different.
Paeonia ostii was believed to be one of the main progenitors of the Chinese tree peony cultivars,and hybridization was the most important pathway for incorporation of genetic composition of P.ostii.However,no experimental evidence had been reported till now.In this study,P.ostii was used as a maternal parent crossing with other two Chinese tree peony cultivars which were used as paternal parents.The relationships between the F1 hybrids and their parents were analyzed by means of DNA fingerprinting based on ISSR （Inter-simple sequence repeats） markers,and ISSR fragments typically inherited from both parents were detected in the genomes of the F1 generation.This study also indicated that ISSR marker was suitable for identification of F1 hybrids in P.suffruticosa at seedling stage.
Typical tree slelction and random sampling were applied for systematic studies on individual variation of gutta-percha content in samaras of Eucommia ulmoides and the correlations between the characters of samara containing gutta-percha and several macroscopic properties.Integrated extraction was applied for gum content tests.The result showed that characteristics of samara of different clones,its gutta-percha content characters such as the length,width,thickness of samara,the shape index (ratio of length to width),the weight of kilo-seed,gutta-percha content rate in pericarp,seed and gutta-percha content in individual samara,etc,were different significantly.There were 14 clones whose gutta-percha content rates in pericarp were significantly higher than that of the object of reference;15 clones whose gutta-percha content rates in samara were significantly higher than that of the object of reference.The correlations between gutta-percha content rate in pericarp,in samara and main shape characters of samara were not in significant level,but as to gutta-percha content in individual samara,it significantly related with shape characters such as the length,width,thickness and kilo-seed weight,it also significantly related with gutta-percha content rate in pericarp and in samara.
Based on 16 years' studies, this paper explored and made clear the change laws of volume, dry matter of individual tree, fibre weight of individual tree, fibre length, fibre width, ratio of fibre length to width,fibre content and density of timber and the correlation of these properties.There were greatly obvious discrepancies among the properties of different clones,both fibre length and fibre width were not affected by site.The contribution rates of volume,fibre percentage and density of timber to fibre capacity of individual tree were respectively 61.7%,22.6%,15.7%.The hereditary capacity was in the range of 0.510.68.By comparison,12 clones of long-fibre,4 of medium-fibre and 4 clones suitable for poor site condition were selected.
A landscape classification method was developed based on forest resource inventory data of Jingouling Forest Farm of Wangqing Forestry Bureau,Jilin Province.The factors considered for landscape classification were land cover type as first level (forest farm) and dominate tree species group at second level (management compartment). Changes in landscape pattern were analyzed during the period of 1987 to 1997 at the two landscape levels. Major landscape types in the farm were mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest forests,mixed coniferous forests,Larix forests and mixed broad-leaved forests. The numbers of patches in 1987 and 1997 were 592 and 946 respectively, which showed the trends of landscape fragmentation. Landscape diversity indices and relative richness decreased,but dominance indices increased. The influence of silviculture practices on the landscape pattern was primarily analyzed. Results indicated that greater changes in landscape types and the number of patches all occurred in the compartments with heavier forest management practice.
Through measuring biomass,productivity and energy structure of different-aged Dendrocalamus latiflorus plantations planted on mountainous areas,results showed that biomass,productivity and energy structure tended to increase with the age of stand.In the stand aged over three,the structures of the biomass and energy on ground were larger than those under ground.Biomass and energy of vegetation under forest tended to decrease with the age of stand,energy store of vegetation layer were larger than that of arbor layer in one-year-old and two-year-old plantations.Energy value of different groups of forest ranged from 17.205 9 to 20.280 6 kJ·g-1,the largest was shrub layer,the lowest was litter layer.
Based on three years' investigation,the medicinal plants in Shihu Provincial Nature Reserve were studied. There were about 355 species of medicinal plants belonging to 244 genera and 89 families, which accounted for 60.27%,74.62% and 91.75% of the total species, genera and families of plant resources there.There were 13 species of endangered plants under the national protection,which accounted for 7.74% of the endangered medicinal plants in China;47 species of medicinal plants under the provincial protection of Jilin;8 species of protected medicinal plants in China and 13 species of native medicinal plants in the Northeast.The medicinal plants that as a whole plant had medicinal value occupyed 39.72%,that only the roots had such value 23.10% and that only the rootstocks had such value 12.39%;antipyretics medicine and medicines for rheumatism accounted for 32.39% and 15.49% respectively.98.03% species were distributed in Korean pine broadleaved-coniferious mixed forests with the altitude of 7001 000 m. 42.86% of these species belonged to the north temperate type.The dominant families were mainly Composiatae, Rosaceae, Ranunculaceae, Liliaceae and so on.The concrete suggestions of protection and exploitation were given.
The cultivation experiments of red-fruit and yellow-fruit types of Opuntia ficus-indica were conducted with cuttage of the joints.Model Ⅰ(2 parallel rows on one bed,row spacing 30 cm,spacing in the rows 30 cm)and model Ⅱ(3 rows on one bed shaped the letter "X",2 outside parallel rows and row spacing 40 cm)were fited to the culture of seedling joints.Mode I was also suitable for the culture of joints used as vegetable, forage and cochineal insects'food, and model Ⅲ(1 row in one bed, spacing in the row 60 cm,and bed spacing 100 cm) for fruits culture. A mature joint only inferior to the top position of plant was the best to be used as cuttings.There was no evident differences for yellow-fruit type to be cultivated on either sandy or clay soil, but obvious for red-fruit type. In spite of its inferior to yellow-fruit type on the clay soil,the quantity and weight of new joints of red-fruit type were 1.19 and 1.54 times that of yellow-fruit type on the sandy soil, and 2.07 and 2.25 times that of on the clay soil respectively.
Population dynamics and population structure of parasite wasps on white wax insect were studied by the fixture trapping from 1999 to 2000.Results showed that in Kunming area there were 11 species,and all the species belong to chalcid parasited on Ericerus pela.According to the classification standard,Microterys ericeri,Metaphycus ericeri and Microterys sinicus were defined as the dominant parasite wasps of the white wax insect,occupying 45.9%,37.3%and 11.4% of total species population density respectively.The fluctuation of dominant population was a key factor influencing the complex population fluctuation.A suggestion was given to designate the control strategy about the parasite wasps on the white wax insect.
The provenance test on 10 provenances of Camptotheca acuminata from 10 provinces such as Guangdong Province, Yunnan Province, Fujian Province etc., was carried out in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Based on the investigation and analysis of traits in one-year-old seedling from different provenances, the results were showed as follows:Camptothecca acuminata had high level of genetic variation at the level of population. There were significant differences in such economic indexes as seedling height, diameter at the base, biomass of different organs, camptothecin concentration in leaf and camptothecin yield per seedling among 10 provenances in the experiment and the differences were mainly controlled by genetic factors, with different broad-sense heritabilities from 0.527 to 0.989. There was a very significant correlationship in biomass distribution among different organs of seedling. According to camptothecin yield per seedling,Jiangxi provenance was selected as a superior provenance for establishment of leaf-producing plantation of Camptotheca acuminata,which was 119.39% higher in camptothecin yield per seedling than that of the control provenance from Lin'an, Zhejiang Province. The genetic gain of camptothecin yield per unit area was expected to reach 105.42%,when Jiangxi provenance was used as plant material for establishment of leaf-producing plantation of Camptotheca acuminata.
Techniques of controlling browning and tissue culture on stem segments of young branches on mature trees of Parakmeria lotongesis were researched.Results obtained showed that 1/2 MS medium and WPM medium were more suitable to tissue culture of Parakmeria lotongensis.A lot of callus were induced on WPM medium containing BA 1.5 mg·L-1,NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 and 2,4-D 1.0 mg·L-1.A large number of adventitious buds and some calluses induced from calluses were observed on WPM medium supplemented with BA 1.5 mg·L-1,KT 0.5 mg·L-1,NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 and 2,4-D 0.3 mg·L-1.The medium of WPM+BA 1.5 mg·L-1+KT 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1+IAA 1.0 mg·L-1 was fit to shoot proliferation. Plantlets rooted well on 1/2 MS medium containing NAA 0.3 mg·L-1 and IBA 0.2 mg·L-1 with 1.5 percent active charcoal. The effects of antioxidizer on controlling oxidative browning was better than that of adsorbent.There were difference among various antioxidizers on controlling browning.Their capacities of preventing browning were as follows:ascorbic acid (vitamin C)mecapto ethanoldithiothreitol.Effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and active charcoal on preventing browning were not obvious. Oxidative browning rates of explants on WPM medium supplemented with ascorbic acid (10 mg·L-1),mecapto ethanol (1 mL·L-1) and dithiothreitol (0.5 mg·L-1) were 67%,53% and 33% lower than that of without any antioxidizer in initial culture and subculture.The treatment that explants were putfor 2 h at 4 ℃ before inoculation favor the decreasing browning, esplants browning rate decreased from 35% (CK) to 25%.
Impacts on growth of young trees of Pinus koraiensis of 6 environmental factors of light condition, thickness of soil humus, direct sunlight, neighboring trees, upper canopy species, herbs and shrubs were investigated on the young trees of P.koraiensis and 4 closest neighboring trees which were considered the structural unit of the individual growth environment. Results indicated that the 6 environmental factors had effects, to various extents, on the growth of the young trees of P.koraiensis. Based on the findings, suitable growing conditions for the regenerated young trees of P.koraiensis under forest were identified and corresponding measures of silviculture were proposed for operational practice.
Effect of AM fungi on the growth of Populus ussuriensis under varied fertilization was studied.The result showed that all of 5 fungi infected the seedling of Populus ussuriensis,and significant difference between the seedling infected by three fungi Glomus intraradices,G.mosseae and G.versiforme and control of Populus ussuriensis seedling in the height,ground diameter and dried biomass under no fertilization. And the height, ground diameter and dried biomass were related with infected rate of fungi.The AM fungi could enhance the absorbing ability of seedling to hard-dissolved phosphorus.The authors found that the growth of seedling was rapid,which was 2.58 times higher than that of the control,under G.sinuosa with Ca（H2PO4）2·H2O (fertilized concentration equalized effective component （P2O5） 0.06 g·kg-1).The combine of G.mosseae or G.intraradices and dissolved phosphorus K2HPO4 (fertilized concentration equalized effective component （P2O5） 0.03 g·kg-1) was the best, while the higher concentration of phosphorus leaded a decrease of biomass. The AM fungi could also enhance absorbing ability of seedling to dissolved nitrogen.The growth of seedling increased under infected by G.versiforme,G.intraradices with KNO3 (fertilized concentration equalized effective component （NO3-） 0.08 g·kg-1) and by G.mosseae,G.intraradices with （NH4）2SO4 (fertilized concentration equalized effective component （NH4+） 0.08 g·kg-1),the biomass was 2.91,2.56,2.7 and 2.4 times of control,respectively.The fertilization of root area was crucial for infected rate of fungi.
This study was conducted to assess the parasitism of 13 isolates Paecilomyces lilacinus originating from difference areas on eggs of Meloidogyne incognita.The assay included three treatments:individual eggs treated by spore suspension,individual eggs treated by hypha of fungus,and egg masses treated by spore suspension.Parasitic rate of the same one of all isolates differed in 3 treatments, in which parasitic rate treated by spore suspension was much higher than that in the other two treatments. The results indicated that egg parasitic rate differed significantly among 13 isolates. In the three treatments, parasitic rate of isolate 618 on Meloidogyne incognita eggs was the highest. Parasitic rates of 13 isolates had not relation to the geographical resources of isolates.
In the drought period of Lijiang River Catchment,the contradiction between the demand and supply of water resource was serious.The main reasons causing the water resource crisis of Lijiang River Catchment were the effects of geographical environment and climate,the rapidly increased demand of industries,agriculture and people's life to water resources;unreasonable forest stand structure on the upper reaches,the poor water conservation capacity of forest stands,illegal harvesting of forest,destruction of forest for land reclamation,exhaustion of water conservation forest,etc.To counter this tendency of water resource crisis,some strategies and countermeasures from the viewpoints of protecting the eco-environment of upper reaches of Lijiang River and saving the water resources were put forward.
This paper,from two aspects,discussed the internal and external study situation about the model of modeling and prediction of stand diameter structure,summarily indicated that the study of stand diameter structure model was unfolded around two methods of parametric approach and nonparametric approach,mainly introduced a few main modeling and prediction methods like theoretical equation method,k-nearest neighbor estimation method,and a few common evaluation and prediction methods like percentile method and regression method,indicated respectively the advantages and shortages of models and calculation methods of parameters,and discussed present problems and following emphases in studies. This paper,in the view of practical application,aimed to provide a study platform for following studies.
According to these results of Haloxylon Bunge's adaption and resistance to drought at home and abroad,the article discussed the mechanism of Haloxylon Bunge's adaption and resistance to drought from its physioecological characters of water,photosynthesis,anatomical structure,osmotic adjustment,protective enzyme of membrane system to hormone.Base on these,the research focus in the further were forecasted.
This article has introduced the basic principles and procedure of EST analysis,and also reviewed the application of EST in novel gene finding,gene expression analysis and the use in preparation of gene-chips in genomic studies on different biological processes,wood formation for instance.EST database provide a resource to develop molecular markers such as SNP,SSR,etc.,the latter has been used to construct genetic linkage maps.It's prospect of its application on forest genomics is also discussed.
It was demonstrated by cutting experiment of Elacocarpus sylvestris,Liquidambar formosana,Altingia gracilipes,Magnoliaceae skinneriana,Temstroemia gymnanthera,with semi-lignified branches treated by different root-inducing regulator and concentration and substrate at Changle Forest Experamental Station of Yuhang District of Zhejiang in June 2003 year that cutting survival rate,rooting rate,rooting coefficient,length of the roots and the quantity of the new roots of 5 tree species had significant different after six month,and it was different that the reaction of different tree species to rooting-inducing regulator.The best treatment combination of 5 tree species was:Elacocarpus sylvestris:NAA, 250 mg·L-1,rooting rate 97.0%;Liquidambar formosana:IBA,250 mg·L-1,rooting rate 64.5%;Altingia gracilipes:ABT1, 250 mg·L-1, rooting rate 74.6%;Magnoliaceae skinneriana:IBA,500 mg·L-1,rooting rate 56.1%;Temstroemia gymnanthera:IBA,250 mg·L-1,rooting rate 95.2%.The different cutting substrates had significant influence on rooting rate.The substrate No.2 (yellow soil:river sand =7∶3(volume ratio)) was best.
The planting experiment on introducing 18 lily cultivars to Huangshan Region, Anhui Province was made by observing growth height, flowering property,and other growth indexes.The result showed that most of 18 cultivars could grow and flowering normally and was easily to be planted in the local climate.Five cultivars-Cascade and Sempre-Avanti of Eastern strains,Roma,Cordelia and Prato of Asia strains had proper flower numbers,good flower color,no flower abscission,and proper height,suitable for cultivating as fresh cutting flowers;Eight cultivars-Mediterrannee,Siberia,Miami,Berlin and Cheny-Blossom of Eastern strains and Alaska,London, and Geneve from Asia strains had proper flower numbers and good flower color without flower abscission, but low height,which were suitable as potting flowers and ornamental flowers for garden;Three cultivars-Bergamo of Eastern strain,Prato and Elite of Asia strain had bad flower shape,serious flower abscission,and low ornamental value,so they still needed further study when introduced;and 2 cultivars-Navona and Coral-Fashion of Asia hybrid strains couldn't grow and flower,so they were unsuitable for planting in the local climate.
This paper dealed with the differences between albino and normal seedlings of Calamus nambarensis var.xishuangbanensis in terms of growth and photosynthesis.Thirteen families among 22 families were found to have one to three albinos,the percent of which varying from 0.4 to 2.2 percents,while the percent of albinos among all 22 families was about 0.7 percent.The number of albino leaves and the length of longest leaves were 1.9±0.3 and 22.32±3.49 cm respectively, which were less than that of 2.0±0.0 and 26.09±3.26 cm of normal seedlings,accounting for 95% and 85% of normal seedlings.The albinos hadn't chlorophyll a,but some chlorophyll b.The total content of chlorophyll was 0.02 mg·g-1FW, much less than that of 8.15 mg·g-1FW of normal seedlings, accounting for 0.2 percent.Whether photosynthesis active radiation(PAR) was 800 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or (1 600) μmol·m(-2)·s(-1),the photosynthetic rate of albinos was less than that of normal seedlings,accounting for about 20 percents.
Genomic DNA was successfully extracted from leaf tissues of two rattan species,Calamus simplificifolius and Daemonorops margaritae,using a modified CTAB method.This method could remove phenolic compounds,polysaccharides and proteins,and the quality and quantity of DNA extracted were reliably characterized.In addition,the reaction composition and amplification program for RAPD analysis were developed with GeneAmp PCR System 2700 (Applied Biosystem Co.).This study provided a technological basis for future molecular studies in rattan and the related species.