2015 Vol. 28, No. 1
AtFBDL1 is a member of FBD-like gene family, which encodes proteins containing sequences similar to F-box structure domain. Online expression prediction indicates that AtFBDL1 is mainly expressed in shoot apical meristem. Few studies have been conducted on FBD-like genes, which cause the function of these genes remains largely unknown. By using tissue-specific semi-quantitative analysis and GUS staining, the temporospatial expression pattern of AtFBDL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The result showed that in the early stage of seedling development, the AtFBDL1 was mainly expressed in shoot apical meristem and in hypocotyl. After the stage of euphylla emerged, the expression of AtFBDL1 in hypocotyl decreased significantly and mainly restricted the shoot apical meristem. Compared with wild type plants, the AtFBDL1 over-expressed plants displayed slowed growth with up to 12 cm shorter stems, delayed bolting time of 3 to 4 days, reduced rosette leaf area, increased leaf number up to 10, and abnormal leaves. Co-expression analysis showed that the transcription of AtFBDL1 was correlated with several auxin-related or flowering regulation genes. The result of this study indicates that the AtFBDL1 plays an essential role in plant growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, especially in the process of the shoot apical meristem differentiation, highly likely through auxin-related pathways.
It is a basic approach to estimate the stand transpiration through computing the average of sap flow density (Js) from a number of sample trees and then up-scaling. However, without considering the effect of tree size or spatial position in community on Js, the approach is likely to either under-or over-estimate the stand transpiration, especially in a high-density stand. In order to understand the difference in Js among trees of different size or degree of dominance, and further improve the accuracy of the up-scaling approach, a field experiment was conducted in a Larix principis-rupprechtii stand located at the semi-arid region of Liupan Mountains. In the experiment, the Js of five sample trees with different dominances (relative height) was continuously monitored by using thermal diffusion probes. Then the differences in Js among individual trees under three kinds of soil water conditions were analyzed with the data at mid-growing season when the tree leaf area reached to the maximum and remained relatively stable. It is found that the Js in trees with higher dominance ("higher trees") started earlier in the morning but ended later at night than in trees with lower dominance ("lower trees"). In addition, the maximum of Js during the daytime appeared earlier and was higher in higher trees. Thus the daily average of Js in higher trees was apparently higher as well. Furthermore, the Js in higher trees was more sensitive to the solar radiation (Rs) and the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on a 5-min time scale, while on daily scale to the soil drought, higher trees showed less sensitive than the lower trees, implying a stronger ability for obtaining light and water. In general, however, no significant difference was found in the pattern of Js response to environmental conditions among sample trees, and the relative difference in Js was relatively stable. Correlation analysis indicated that the most important factors positively affecting the Js were the degree of dominance (relative height) and the tree height (PPP>0.05). In an improved approach, the Js of the forest stand was taken as the average of Js for all individual trees in the stand which was calculated by using the linear relation between Js and degree of dominance. The value calculated by the average of Js for the five sample trees was 16% lower than that calculated by the widely used approach. Therefore it is proposed that the degree of dominance should be taken into account in the up-scaling approach for the stand's Js or transpiration estimate in future.
Five different proteins which interacted with Tamarix hispida translation initiation factor (TheIF1A) gene were obtained by yeast two-hybrid assay. They were RNA polymerase beta II subunit, ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit protein, cytochrome b6/f complex subunit IV, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit and histone acetyltransferase. Furthermore, the expression patterns of these proteins and TheIF1A under normal and abiotic stresses were analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. The results showed that these interacting proteins were all shared similar expression patterns with TheIF1A, suggesting that these proteins may act together to regulate the stress tolerance of T. hispida.
Taking 10 111 Q. mongolica individuals obtained from 184 plots in Wangqing Forestry Bureau in Jilin Province as test materials, this study is to develop individual basal area increment model for Quercus mongolica Fisch by mixed effects model approach. The relationship between four dependent variables (the later diameter at breast height, the later basal area at breast height, the diameter increment and the basal area increment) and earlier stage diameter at breast height were analyzed using seven functions commonly used, i.e. linear function, Richards function, logistic function, exponential function etc. The best model was selected as the base model to develop mixed effects model. And then, the best combination form of formal parameters in the base model was determined with considering both the random effects of forest farms and the plot simultaneously. Forest variables contained in the formal parameters of the model were determined by stepwise regression method. Three kinds of residual variance functions (exponential function, power function and constant plus power function) that used to eliminate heteroskedasticity were analyzed and compared and the prediction efficiency of model was tested. The results are as follows. The Wykoff model that the dependent variable was later basal area at breast height had a better fit effect and used as the base model. In addition to the early diameter at breast height (D), the model included the stand variables, such as the tangent of slope (ST), the ratio of D of target tree to arithmetical mean diameter of plot (RAD), the total basal area of plots (TBA), the sum of basal area of trees with diameter larger than target tree (GSBA), the ratio of basal area of target tree to arithmetical mean basal area of plot (RABA) and the ratio of basal area of target to total basal area of plot (RBA), had a better prediction accuracy. For residual variance, the exponential function, power function and constant plus power function could eliminate the heteroskedasticity, but the power function was the best. The mixed effects model taking forest farm and plot effects into account has the highest prediction accuracy.
The CCH gene from Populus simonii leaf was cloned according to a strategy combining bioinformatics and molecular biological approaches and its expression in response to heavy metals and plant growth regulators was detected by qPCR. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 85 amino acids, named as PsCCH. The deduced amino acid sequence of PsCCH possesses the conserved metal-binding motif in its N-terminal (MXCXXC) and has the classic βαββαβ-fold structure. Phylogeny analysis showed that the PsCCH was much closer to the CCH from Hevea brasiliensis,Jatropha curcas and Vitis vinifera (with 90%-93% in amino acids similarity). The results of qPCR showed that the expression of PsCCH was regulated by various heavy metals and plant growth regulators: the PsCCH transcripts increased within one hour and then decreased to a lower level after 3 hours, such as in zinc, aluminum, low copper and jasmonic acid treatments; and the PsCCH transcripts continuously decreased during the treatment, such as in high copper, cobalt, mercury and salicylic acid treatments.
Two samples of Populus cathayana from Yushu were sequenced with high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina HiSeqTM 2000). A total of 7076 sequences were hunted for microsatellites analysis, including 525 compound microsatellite sequences. The results showed that the mononucleotide repeats were the highest (33.96%), followed by trinucleotide repeats (31.00%) and dinucleotide repeats 27.69%. The tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were all less than 8%. Among the dinnucleotide repeats, the AG repeats were with highest frequency followed by GA, CT and TC respectively. Similarly in trinucleotide repeats, the AAG repeats were the highest followed by GAA, TTC, AGA, GAG, CAG, TCT and TGG. In the single nucleotide polymorphism, the transition types were higher than transversion in both samples. In sample L1A, the transition types of SNPs were 61.06% while the transversion types were 38.94%. In sample L2A, the transition types were 61.27%, while the transversion types were 38.73%. Among the transitions of two samples, C-T occurrences frequencies were the most, 30.75% and 30.66% respectively. A-G occurrences frequencies were similar to C-T, list to the second (30.31% and 30.62%). In both samples, the single nucleotide polymorphism trends were similar. The ratios of the same single nucleotide polymorphism in both samples were 2∶ 1. The results of analysis indicated that the SNP was a more reliable maker in geneticdiversity than SSR.
In order to study the bioinformatics characteristics of Populus tomentosa Carr., the local software Blast P was used to search the TUA gene members of Populus in the database of Populus whole genome and Genbank and then the TUA genes family was cloned. By using the software Clustal W and MEGA, the sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of TUA genes were conducted. Finally, the TUA protein simulation structures were gotten by the SWISS-MODEL. The result showed that the P. tomentosa α-tubulin genes family consisted of 8 TUA genes members. The 8 members can be divided into two classes, and each class had its own exon-intron property. The three-dimensional structures of the 8 TUA proteins showed extreme similarity. It is proved that the TUA genes have conserve gene and protein structure, and 8 Populus TUA genes are originated from one ancestor.
In order to select the excellent provenance of Parakmeria latungensis, the young forests of 14 provenances were investigated and evaluated comprehensively using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that there were significant differences in six traits, including tree height, diameter at breast height, crown density, leaf area, leaf color and afforestation preservation rate among different geographic provenances, showing a huge potential for improvement. The broad heritability of these six traits were 0.835, 0.811, 0.857, 0.823, 0.950, and 0.708, respectively, suggesting these traits were mainly controlled by genetic factors instead of environmental factors. The result of AHP showed that 4 provenances of P. latungensis, which derived from Shunchang of Fujian Province, Xinning of Hunan Province, Longquan of Zhejiang Province and Jiangle of Fujian Province, had the higher promotion and application value in the north of Zhejiang, while 3 provenances of P. latungensis, which derived from Longnan of Jiangxi Province, Ledong of Hainan Province and Jianfengling of Hainan Province, performed poorly in terms of growth, adaptation and ornamental characteristics.
In sample area scale, the soil moisture of Thickleaf Spruce (Picea crassifolia) natural forest and the plantations with no thinning and thinned in 20% intensity in the Qilian Mountains were studied during the growing season by EM50 soil moisture monitors to analysis the effects of thinning on plantation soil moisture. The results showed that the surface (10 cm) soil moisture content of unthinned plantation was significantly higher than that of the plantations thinned in 20% intensity and the natural forests. It is proved that thinning led to the decline of surface soil moisture of plantations. But the intermediate thinning significantly increased the soil moisture content at the depth of 60 cm. Compared with the soil water content of natural forest land, the soil volumetric water contents in the depth of 60 cm and 80 cm of unthinned plantation were only 49.7% and 52.1% that of natural forests during the growing season. Aridification was found in deep soil layer of plantation, but it can be mitigated and slow down by intermediate thinning.
According to the data of China's Monochamus alternatus Hope occurrence in the period of 2002 to 2012, and taking the average occurrence rate of prefectures affected by the insect pest as a predictor, the meteorological data in those prefectures were calculated using a climate simulation software called ClimateChina v 4.40. By means of partial least squares regression, the regression equation about the average occurrence rate and meteorological factor, i.e. the spatial pattern model of average occurrence rate, was obtained to predict the future trend of potential changes on M. alternatus in China combined with the geospatial data and attribute data. The results showed that the spatial pattern model of M. alternatus' average occurrence rate built by 12 selected meteorological factors had high reliability. The prediction accuracy of the spatial pattern model was 83.14%. Based on the model, the spatial pattern of M. alternatus' average occurrence rate was predicted. The prediction results of the occurrence rate in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, showed that compared with the data of 2002-2012, the area with moderate or severe insect pest would be larger in eastern Sichuan, central Guizhou, eastern Hunan, western Jiangxi and western Zhejiang. The severe occurrence area in southeast Shaanxi would be less, while the mild occurrence area would decrease obviously in eastern Shandong and central Anhui.
In forest management, to predict the stem diameters inside bark are more important than the diameters outside bark. Measurement on diameter inside bark is both expensive and time-consuming, moreover, causing larger measurement errors especially for measuring standing trees. In this study, three types of model are compared for predicting inside bark diameters using stem analysis data of dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.): Grosenbaugh's ratio equations, regression models, and taper function. Grosenbaugh's ratio equations had great flexibility, need neither parameters nor model fitting. The results of overall evaluation and comparisons of different sections indicated that the regression models had smaller prediction error, especially the model including diameter outside bark, total height, relative height, breast height diameters outside bark and inside bark by Cao and Pepper. The taper function had larger prediction error of diameters inside bark but did not require outside bark diameters variables. All these models have some adaptability in the forest management process.
Taking stems and leaves of wild Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. as explants to study the disinfectant effects by NaClO on explants and the effects of 2,4-D, NAA and 6-BA on callus induction and morphology. The callus morphology was analyzed and cell suspension systems were established with the loose type callus, its growth characteristics were observed. The results show that the best way of disinfection of explants was 10 minutes with NaClO, the longer or shorter the sterilization time, the lower the survival rate. Three hormones had effects on relative growth and morphology of callus and the 2,4-D was a major factor, the relative growth rate of callus from stem was higher than that of leaves. To be confirmed by callus growth rate and morphological characteristics, cultured on MS medium containing 2,4-D 1.5 mg·L-1, NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 and 6-BA 0.4 mg·L-1 was the optimum treatment combination for the establishment of N. tangutorum suspension cell lines. The calluses were loose type with light yellow, and the best inoculation dosage was 7.5 mL mother liquor. Under such condition, the cells grew in an 'S' curve. The cell mitotic index reached the maximum value of 5.1% at the seventh day, at the third day of cultured the cell got the strongest activity and the light absorption value was 0.69. The survival rate in the lag phase and stationary phase decreased slightly faster than logarithmic phase, but maintained between 84%-93%.
The Larix gmelinii overcutting forest formed by final cutting in the 1980s at Chaocha Forest Farm, Genhe Forestry Bureau of Inner Mongolia was investigated. Based on the tree's location data of 8 sample plots in the L. gmelinii forest, the impacts of forest stand pattern and quadrat (5 m×5 m) stem-number on the amount of dead standing trees were analyzed, the relationship between the location of big trees and the regeneration saplings and the location of dead standing trees was discussed, and the forming mechanism of distribution pattern of dead standing trees was clarified. The results are as follows. 1. The ratio of dead standing trees increased with the increase of tree species. The dead standing trees were formed mainly in the stage of regeneration saplings, with the diameter class distribution mainly being below the fourth diameter class, and the average ratio of trees accounting for 82.2% of the total. In the regeneration saplings (including dead standing trees), an average ratio of production of dead standing trees is 8.8%. 2. The distribution of dead standing trees followed a aggregated pattern. The forest stand pattern, the quadrat stem-number and the amount of regeneration trees were in a significant correlation with the amount of dead standing trees. The forest stand pattern had not a significant effect on the pattern of dead standing trees. If the degree of aggregation of the forest is greater, the probability of the formation of dead standing trees will be greater, and the amount will be greater. 3. The location of dead standing trees had a significant correlation with the location of regeneration saplings and regeneration big trees. The main performance was the mutual relation between larch and white birch. The location of dead standing trees was mainly at the aggregation area of the big trees and regeneration saplings. Compared to the regeneration saplings, the big trees had greater impact on the dead standing trees, and specifically, the impact from larch was greater than that from the white birch. The white birch's regeneration saplings had not a significant impact on the formation of larch's dead standing trees. The dead standing trees affected were mainly the species with a higher ratio or greater amount of dead standing trees upon the species of trees. The forest that had an impact on dead standing trees depended mainly on the position of the sample trees and the stem-number.
Taiwania flousiana plantations with different stand ages (9-, 14-and 20-year-old) in Nandan Shankou Forest Farm of Guangxi were selected to study the soil physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities by spacial-temporal exchange method. The results showed that there existed differences in the soil physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities among the 3 age classes of T. flousiana plantations. The surface soil(0-20 cm)density, total porosity and maximum moisture capacity were 0.978 g·cm-3, 63.10% and 64.55% in 8-year-old T. flousiana plantation; 0.914 g·cm-3, 65.53% and 71.70% in 14-year-old T. flousiana plantation; and 0.890 g·cm-3, 66.40% and 74.58 in 20-year-old T. flousiana plantation. With the increase of stand age, the changes of soil chemical and biochemical indicators were not the same, but to 20-year-old forest period, most soil nutrient and enzyme activity index increased, the soil fertility conditions improved.
Based on the results of transcriptome sequencing, the DXR gene cDNA was isolated from the flower bud of Litsea cubeba by the method of RT-PCR. At the same time, full-length sequence of DXR was first obtained from the genomic DNA by PCR and splice, and named as LcDXR. Sequence analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of LcDXR was 1 501bp, including 5' non-coding region 34bp and 3'non-coding region 53bp and encoded 470 amino acids. The theoretical molecular weight of LcDXR was 51.12kd and the isoelectric point was predicted as 6.62. The full-length gene was 12 601bp with 12 exons and 11 introns. Single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites of LcDXR from 10 sources were analyzed, the results showed that there were 10 SNPs within cDNA region, and 4 SNPs lead to amino acids changes. Point mutation was analyzed by Swiss-PDB Viewer to find fine structure changes resulted by amino acids mutations. The Lys119Thr mutation in Anyuan, Jiangxi Province was shown to have H-bonds change, which may have an impact on the enzyme activity.
Taking Schima superba-Cyclobalanpsis glauca mixed stand (SP) and Elaeocarpus sylvestris pure stand (EP) (both were transformed from degraded shrub forest (DF)) in north subtropical areas of China as test objects, the effects of different species composition on the labile organic carbon contents in 0 50 cm soil depth were analyzed. As compared with the retained DF, the soil total organic carbon (TOC), easily-oxidized carbon (EOC) and light fraction organic matter (LFOM) in both SP and EP stands increased by 52.33%-96.13% and 77.93%-119.85%, 57.89%-100.90% and 21.44%-46.85%, 74.50%-93.75% and 27.24%-96.09%, respectively. No obvious change in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was observed after reforestation. The ratios of WSOC/TOC in the soils followed the order of DF >SP >EP, whereas the EOC/TOC in the soils followed the order of SP >DF >EP. In the three stands, the soil WSOC, EOC, and LFOC had extremely significant correlations with soil TOC (p<0.01), and the correlation coefficients of each labile organic carbon with soil TOC were higher in SP than in DF and EP. The soil TOC, EOC and LFOC in the three stands were extremely significantly correlated with soil nutrients, but the soil WSOC had no significant correlations with soil hydrolysable N and available K in DF, all the same, there was no significant correlation between soil WSOC and available K in EP.
The vegetation in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir area as an important component of ecological system plays an important role in ensuring reservoir safety and social-economic development. The spatial distribution configuration and dominant plant species composition of the hydro-fluctuation belt are important bases for the selection of plant materials. Based on vegetation survey from four monitoring plots located in Zigui and Wushan, the trunk line of Three Gorges Reservoir, the species diversity, plant life form and spatial distribution configuration of dominant plants were investigated. The results are as follows. 1.With the altitude lowering, the species diversity decreased, the proportion of therophyte herbs increased, the species diversity of perennial herbs differed (in Zigui decreased, while in Wushan increased), and the species diversity of woody plant decreased. 2.The dominant species in deep water sections of Three Gorges Reservoir area mainly belongs to Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Asteraceae, such as Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria ciliaris, Setaira viridis, Bidens pilosa and so on. The dominant species survived in shallow water sections also mainly belongs to Poaceae and Asteraceae, but also emerged some new important value higher dominant species compared to deep water sections. The mechanism of these survival species is that they mainly have underground creeping rhizomes, well developed aerenchyma and strong adaptability to flooding and extreme dry hot environment when the water level drops.
Nineteen Rosa roxbunghii, R. sterilis and R. sterilis var. leioclada specimen collected from Xing'ren and Anshun in Guizhou of China were identified by AFLP molecular markers and DNA barcodes. The results of AFLP showed that genetic similarity coefficient among the 19 specimen ranged from 0.719 0 0.997 2 and the average was 0.936 5. The result of UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the 19 specimen could be divided into two groups. R. roxbunghii was distinct from the others and formed one group separately, which the others fall into another group. The result of DNA barcodes showed that there was not variable site in ITS sequences and 4 cpDNA sequences showed highly closed affinity. Based on combined sequences, the average error was 0.000 6, while the genetic distance between R. roxbunghii and the others was 0.005 8. The identification results of two methods were consistent. R. sterilis and R. roxbunghii were two segregated species. The R. sterilis collected from Xing'ren and R. sterilis var. leioclada collected from Anshun belong to the same species. The results of this study determined the phylogeny status of R. sterilis at the level of molecular and gene and laid the theoretical foundation for further collection, preservation, exploitation and application of R. sterilis germplasm resources.
The size, germination, seeding growth and enzyme activity of the brown-yellow, brown-red and black maca (Lepidium meyenii) seeds were analyzed. And the correlation between seed phenotypic traits and seed vigor was studied. The results showed that there were no difference between the traits of the brown-yellow and black seeds, including length, thickness, ratio of width and thickness, kilo-grain weight, germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, vigor index, seedling length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of each plant, POD and dehydrogenase activity; while the traits of both brown-yellow and black seeds were significantly higher than those of the brown-red seeds (PPPP<0.01). Therefore, the vigor and germination ability of brown-yellow and black seeds were better than that of brown-red seeds.
Based on the diets selection of Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) foragers collected from different plantations, the influence of feeding experience to food choice was analyzed. The results showed that Liriodendron chinense bark powder was screened for the preference tree species of O. formosanus from different plantations, the amount of foraging workers, the mud sheet covering rate, and the consumption rate of diet were high, the appearing time of mud sheet was also relatively early in all diets. 15% of millet powder and 5% of cane sugar were screened for the best proportion of auxiliary material, high sugar content had ephemerally phagostimulating effect on O. formosanus, and then, the phagostimulating effect disappeared. There existed feeding memory in O. formosanus foragers, the duration of feeding memory was related to the preference order degree of which the original feeding material ranked among the testing food materials. If original feeding material was the same as the most preferable material in food choice tests, the feeding memory could be retained; otherwise, it would changed after some times. The diet made up of 80% L. chinense bark power, 15% of millet powder and 5% of cane sugar was the best one, the difference preference among bark powder of different tree species might be related to their chemical components.
The Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) is the major insect pest of stored pine pollen products. Focusing on the effectiveness in storage pest control and safety for product quality, the effect of various treatments during pine pollen production such as drying, sifting, sterilizing, and cell-breaking etc. on the control of Indian meal moth was investigated. The results showed that any of the following treatments could control and kill the eggs or larvae of Indian meal moth during pine pollen production:sifting with a sieve more than 180 mesh, drying at 49 ℃ lasting for 120 min, sterilizing by 12 kGy 60Co-γ-ray irradiation, mechanical cell-breaking or pressed into tablets, fumigating with 7 g·m-3 sulfuryl fluoride for 6.5 hours or dealing with for 24 hours at -8 ℃. Partly or fully combinations of all these measures mentioned above are economical, practical and safe to effectively block the invasion or damage of Indian meal moth to pine pollen products.
The effects of volatiles from branch and leaf of Sabina chinensis on open-field behaviors and the physiological and biochemical parameters of Kunming mice and the relationship between the volatiles and the environment conditions were investigated and evaluated. The results showed that distance in central grid, total distance and the time of movement had dose-dependent relationship. The behavior index of low-dose group was higher than that of the control while the behavior index of high-dose group was lower than that of the control group. It suggested that low concentration of volatile matter can improve the excitability of mice, and higher concentration would cause the mice showing inhibiting activity. The weight of all the mice showed a steady growth trend, indicating there was no effect on the appetite of mice. The physiological indicators of mice were normal, while the biochemical indicators of apolipoprotein A was significant different from the control group. The mechanism needs further exploration.