2018 Vol. 31, No. 2
2018, 31(2): 0-0.
[Abstract](1607) [PDF 454KB](342) [Cited by] ()
2018, 31(2): 0-0.
[Abstract](1557) [PDF 263KB](362) [Cited by] ()
Competition Relationship in Typical Natural Broad-Leaved Forest Community of Mid-subtropical Zone: Based on Arbor-layer Stratification
2018, 31(2): 1-10. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.001
[Abstract](3308) [FullText HTML] (976) [PDF 1503KB](455) [Cited by] ()
Objective The object of this study is to determine which competition type, intraspecific or interspecific competition, was popular in typical natural mid-subtropical broad-leaved forest, and to determine how the vertical distribution of trees affect the competition, thereby to provide data for the protection and utilization of forest resources. Method Five typical natural forest sample plots were investigated in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province. Hegyi's competition index was used to investigate two scenarios, without or with arbor-layer stratification. Result The results showed that the competition intensity decreased largely with the increasing of sampling radius until the radius was more than 4 m so that 4 m is a suitable radius for analyzing competition among trees in the five communities. There were more than half of the species only occurred interspecific competition within a radius of 4 m in each plots. Interspecific competition intensity was generally stronger than intraspecific competition intensity for those tree species that were rebelling against both same species and different species, and more different species than same species in their competitors. The arbor layer could be divided into three layers of the five plots. On average, the higher the tree was, the farther the distance was from its competitors, there were more trees belonged to the third arbor layer among the competitors, and the competition pressure was lower for individual object tree with all of its competitors. Conclusion Interspecific competition is popular in the five communities; both the competition pressure and the composition of competitors are closely related to vertical distribution of trees. More attention should be paid to the vertical distribution in the conservation and management of forest resources. There are none intensive interspecific or intraspecific competition occurred in dominant species of the five communities. There are four species, Castanopsis carlesii, Ilex qingyuanensis, Engelhardtia fenzlii, and Elaeocarpus decipiens, could occur intensive interspecific competition, but not specialized competitor was found and the four species mainly distribute in the second or third arbor layer together with their competitors. There are five species mainly distributing in the second or third arbor layer, Elaeocarpus sylvestris, Elaeocarpus chinensis, Randia cochinchinensis, Michelia skinneriana, and Symplocos glauc, could occur over-intraspecific-competition.
Height-Diameter Models of Main Tree Species in Broadleaf-Conifer Mixed Forest in Jiaohe, Jilin, China
2018, 31(2): 11-18. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.002
[Abstract](3159) [FullText HTML] (1353) [PDF 1712KB](585) [Cited by] ()
Objective The aim of this study is to establish the relationships between height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of main tree species under different competitive density in mixed broadleaf-conifer forests in Jiaohe of Jilin province. Method Based on the data of four tree species sampled from a 42 hm2 permanent mature forest plot, the relationships between height and DBH were simulated by four empirical models, Chapman-Richards, Logistic, Korf and Weibull model, to select the optimization model. Result (1) Among 12 groups of samples, 7 groups were best modeled by Weibull model, 4 groups were best modeled by Chapman-Richards model, and only 1 group was best modeled by Korf model. (2) The optimization models simulated by individuals under low and high competitive density were different. (3) The optimization model worked well when examined by independent samples. Conclusion The height-DBH relationships of 4 tree species under different competitive density can be well simulated by Weibull model, which is suitable for height-DBH relationships in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest. In addition, the relationships are affected by competitive density. The predictive ability will be improved by grouping individuals according to the competitive density.
2018, 31(2): 19-25. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.003
[Abstract](3409) [FullText HTML] (1473) [PDF 3069KB](384) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the function of phytochrome interacting factor (PIF) in Populus. Method The molecular characteristics analysis of PIF was conducted, including gene family members, gene structure and conserved motifs. The expression profiles of PIF family members in different tissues were tested under cold, drought and NaCl stresses with real-time quantitative PCR. Result The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that there were at least ten PtPIF members in Populus and the PtPIF genes were conserved during evolution of species, all of them contained bHLH domain. Conclusion The result of qRT-PCR revealed that PtPIF has distinct expression pattern across different tissues and under different abiotic stress conditions. Present study provides references for further decipher the function of PtPIF in Populus.
2018, 31(2): 26-33. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.004
[Abstract](2736) [FullText HTML] (992) [PDF 1393KB](513) [Cited by] ()
Objective To analyze the size distribution and determine the effects of stand age on root biomass in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantation based on the data of fine root, coarse root and dead root biomass among different species groups. Method This study was conducted in 5-year-old, 8-year-old, 15-year-old, 25-year-old and 36-year-old P. kesiya" var.langbianensis plantations located in Pu'er city, Yunnan province, China. The soil cores with diameter of 8.5 cm were collected in October, 2014 at different stand age. Each soil core was separated into three sections at the depths of 010, 1020, and 2030 cm. Result The fine root biomass of P. kesiya var. langbianensis decreased with the stand age, while the fine root biomass of other species groups increased with the stand age. The maximum of fine root biomass was found in the 36-year-old P. kesiya var. langbianensis plantation. There were no significant difference in the coarse root of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and dead root of different stand age in P. kesiya var. langbianensis plantations. On the contrary, the coarse root biomass of other species group and stand, and root biomass increased with the stand age. The fine root biomass mainly distributed in the soil with the depth of 010 cm. The fine root biomass of P. kesiya var. langbianensis, the other species group and all stand as well as root biomass decreased with the increase of soil depth. The stand age and soil depth had significant effect on the fine root biomass of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and other species group, respectively. The cross effect of stand age and soil depth had no significant influences on the fine root biomass of P. kesiya var. langbianensis. The stand age had a significant effect on the dead root biomass. The stand age, soil depth and the cross of stand age and soil depth had significant effect on the coarse root and all root biomass. Conclusion With the growth of P. kesiya var. langbianensis plantations, the community structures and species composition will change and has a significant effect on the root biomass.
2018, 31(2): 34-40. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.005
[Abstract](3961) [FullText HTML] (1729) [PDF 1593KB](500) [Cited by] ()
Objective Many genes coding for important regulatory factors in model plant appears amplified numbers in woody plants. It is worth to be further investigated that the Class A ARR gene family, as a kind of cytokinin responsive factor, reduces its number in Populus. Method Based on the method of bioinformatics, the expression pattern of family members was analyzed by RNA-seq and semi-quantitative PCR, building PtRRI fused to GUS expression vector, Detecting the PtRRI expression in Populus alba×P. glandulosa clone after treated with 6-BA, GA3, ABA and IBA hormones and the GUS signals of PPtRRI::GUS transgenic plant in the process of rooting. Result The GUS signal in PPtRRI::GUS transgenic plants indicated that the PtRRI was mainly expressed in roots, cambium, xylem and this gene may involve in the secondary growth and the expression pattern during adventitious root formation. In addition, the PtRRI transcription expression was induced by 6-BA, which was consistent with its expression under hormone regulation during adventitious root development. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that PtRRs may involve in the process of secondary growth and development of Populus.
2018, 31(2): 41-47. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.006
[Abstract](4226) [FullText HTML] (1640) [PDF 1004KB](493) [Cited by] ()
Objective To analyze the content of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in different oil-tea camellia cones. Method The TAGs composition of six oil-tea camellia species and nine varieties of Camellia oleifera cones were analyzed by HPLC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Result Twenty-four kinds of TAGs were detected, mainly OOO (triolein), OOL (1, 2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol) and OOP (1, 2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol). Among oil-tea camellia species, the cones of C. chekiangoleosa had the highest contents of OOO and OOL (21.18%, 17.70%), the common C.oleifera had the highest OOP content (14.62%). Among the common C. oleifera species, Changlin-166 had higher OOO (45.83%, Changlin-18 had higher OOL (21.05%), and Changlin-53 had higher OOP (16.90%), all of them were over 10%. The comprehensive evaluation ranking of TAGs was inconsistent with the oil content in different oil-tea camellia cones. Conclusion From the analysis of oil content and PCA of TAGs, it is concluded that the nutritional value of C. chekiangoleosa is better among oil-tea camellia species and Changlin-21 is better among common varieties of C. oleifera. The results could provide references in the construction of fingerprint and quality identification of oil-tea camellia oil.
2018, 31(2): 48-54. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.007
[Abstract](3838) [FullText HTML] (1715) [PDF 1697KB](501) [Cited by] ()
Objective The present work aims to explore the variation trends of the heating values of woody plant foliage and its relation to the chemical composition. Method 27 woody plant species belonging to 20 families including coniferous, broadleaf trees and shrubs, were adopted and the measurements were conducted through the proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and the detection of the heating values. Result Test results of the leaf samples indicate that their higher heating values on air-dried basis (HHVd) vary in a broad range from 17.48 to 24.01 MJ·kg-1, with the average value of 21.16 MJ·kg-1. The values of the HHVd are very close for the samples from the same family, and the ash content on air-dried basis plays negligible role in altering the magnitudes of the HHVd for the species studied. Further analysis indicates that the HHVd closely relies on the content ratio of volatile matter to the fix carbon (VMd/FCd). The ratio of VMd/FCd increases with the increase in the atomic O/C ratio of the leaf samples, whereas the content ratios of fix carbon to the combustible substances correspond to the levels of the lignin content stored in plant foliage. Conclusion The increases in the atomic O/C ratio and atomic H/C ratio imply a decrease in the lignin content stored, which lead to a reduction in a higher heating value on air-dried basis. It is found that the higher heating values of these leaf samples on air-dried basis can be precisely determined by the empirical formulas proposed as the following:HHVd=0.189 3VMd+0.369 5FCd and HHVd=0.447 8Cd+1.407 2Hd-0.283 7Od, which provide the basis for quick evaluation of the heating values of the leaf samples on the received basis.
Spatial Distribution of Gravel Characteristics on Gobi Desert Surface Based on Image Acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
2018, 31(2): 55-62. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.008
[Abstract](2913) [FullText HTML] (1162) [PDF 3499KB](346) [Cited by] ()
Objective To explore the applicability of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing technique for large scale research of gravels on Gobi surface. Method Taking the pluvial fan at south slope of Tianshan Mountains in Hami of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as study area, the orthographic images and digital terrain models (DTM) covering a large range of Gobi were obtained by UAV platform and the structure from motion (SfM) technology, and the gravel coverage and diameter were measured and analyzed. From the center to near the edge of the pluvial fan, three typical sample zones were selected, and high resolution images of Gobi surface were shot by camera on UAV. High resolution mosaic image and terrain data of Gobi surface were produced, and the coverage of gravels (diameter ≥ 7 mm) and diameter of gravels (diameter ≥ 32 mm) were calculated. Result From center to near the edge of the fan, the gravel coverage of the three sample zones was 34.22%, 26.85% and 21.88%, and the mean gravel diameter was 130, 95 and 78 mm. As elevation decreased, the gravel coverage and diameter dropped. The gravel coverage and diameter dropped more slowly from the middle to near the edge of the fan than from the center to the middle of the fan. However, within each sample zone, the relationship between gravel characteristics (coverage and diameter) and elevation was not obvious. Conclusion On the scale of pluvial fan, the changes of gravel coverage and diameter are mainly affected by elevation. On the scale of sample zone, the change of gravel coverage and diameter may be affected mainly by the vegetation distribution and local topography. Using UAV and image processing technology can efficiently and accurately estimate a wide range of the gravel characteristics and their spatial distribution, which provides basic data and methodological support for the research on Gobi evolution.
Spectral Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis Based on Airborne Hyperspectral Technique
2018, 31(2): 63-68. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.009
[Abstract](3097) [FullText HTML] (1441) [PDF 1391KB](339) [Cited by] ()
Objective Hyperspectral characteristics and effect of aspect on spectral reflectance of Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis canopy based on airborne remote sensing imagery were investigated in Caiyanghe National Park, southeast Pu'er, Yunnan province. Method Hyperspectral and Lidar data were obtained using airborne LiCHy system in April, 2014. The Lidar data were used to get DEM and slope data. In addition, the characteristic values of spectral curves of P.kesiya var. langbianensis stands in different aspects were statistically analyzed using hyperspectral and forest resources inventory data. Result (1) The spectral reflectance of P.kesiya var. langbianensis canopy was similar to that of green plant. The canopy reflectivity was high in the near infrared band (0.74~1.0 μm), of which, the highest reflectivity located in 0.89μm. (2) The spectral reflectance of P.kesiya var. langbianensis canopy in shady slope was higher than that in sunny slope. There was a significant difference at the peak reflectance of band in north, northeast, south and southeast slopes. (3) According to the solar elevation angle, east, northeast and southeast slopes where face the light has more light radiation than west, northwest and southwest slope and the spectral reflectance was also high. In 0.89 μm band, the reflection of the backlight was 14%~23% lower than that of the face light. Conclusion (1) The spectral reflectance of P.kesiya var. langbianensis canopy shows typical vegetation spectrum characteristics such as "two valleys and one peak" and "red edge". The reflectivity is higher in 0.74~1.0μm band which usually used as special spectrum for P.kesiya var. langbianensis. (2) The solar elevation angle is the main factor affecting the spectral reflectance of different aspect. Besides, the aspect is another important reason causing the difference of reflectance. This study will provide references for complex terrain hyperspectral quantitative remote sensing and tree species identification.
Changes of Soil Nutrients with Stands Growth of Three Kinds of Forestlands in Loess Area of Western Shanxi
2018, 31(2): 69-76. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.010
[Abstract](2733) [FullText HTML] (1191) [PDF 1881KB](460) [Cited by] ()
Objective To explore the effects of different forest types and ages on soil nutrients in the loess area of western Shanxi province, so as to provide reference for sustainable forest management and enrich the ecological service assessment data. Method Forest investigation, soil sampling and laboratory analysis were used to analyze the contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in different soil layers at three plantations with different ages (mid-aged Populus davidiana, Young Pinus tabulaeformis and mid-aged Platycladus orientalis), and studied the C, N, and P stoichiometry in different soil layers in July and August of 2011 and 2016. Result The soil nutrients of different forest lands were accumulated in surface:the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in 0~30 cm soil layer accounted for more than 70% of the total in 0~100 cm soil layer, the soil nutrients decreased with soil depth. After 5 years, the average soil total nitrogen content of 0~50 cm in Populus davidiana, Pinus tabulaeformis and Platycladus orientalis forests increased by 0.26, 0.20, 0.17 g·kg-1, the total phosphorus content increased by 0.05, 0.06, 0.09 g·kg-1; the carbon storage of 0~100 cm layer increased by 21.17, 23.74, 2.21 t·hm-2 respectively. The C:N of soil in different forest lands decreased gradually with the depth of soil layer, while the N:P and C:P in different soil layers changed irregularly; the N:P and C:P of soil surface layer (0~10 cm) decreased significantly with forest age, while the change of C:N was not obvious. Conclusion According to the national soil nutrients classification standards, the carbon and nitrogen in the experimental forests are relatively rich. The total phosphorus content was 0.36~0.46 g·kg-1, which is at level 4 or 5. Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis and Populus davidiana perform better in improving soil organic carbon storage, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the experimental forests.
2018, 31(2): 77-82. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.011
[Abstract](3001) [FullText HTML] (1266) [PDF 841KB](595) [Cited by] ()
Objective To evaluate the reliability of Resistograph penetration method on indirect measurement of wood density of Eucalyptus urophylla×E. tereticornis hybrids, detect the parental effects on cross phenotypic traits and the correlations between growth and wood density, and select fast-growing and high wood-quality Eucalyptus urophylla×E. tereticornis hybrids. Method In a 7.5-year-old trial stand with fifty six hybrid combinations derived from an incomplete factorial mating among 10 E.urophylla (female) and 10 E.tereticornis(male) parents, 79 trees were sampled to determine the correlation in wood density between volumetric and Resistograph measurements. The effects of parents on hybrid growth and wood density were detected by variance analysis. Multiple comparison and independent selection were performed to make joint selection of stand volume and wood density. Result The phenotypic and genetic correlation coefficients between volumetric and Resistograph measurements were 0.52 (P < 0.001) and 0.55 (P < 0.05), respectively. The differences in the traits of height, DBH and stock volume, were highly significant (P < 0.001 or 0.01) among either females or males, but no significant difference was observed for female×male interactions. For ResistograPh-based wood density, however, the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001) among the males and significant (P < 0.05) for female×male interactions, but insignificant among the females. The growth traits of height, DBH and stock volume were highly significantly correlated in both phenotypic and genetic terms (P < 0.001), while their phenotypic and genetic correlations with wood density were highly significant (P < 0.001) and insignificant, respectively. A total of 14 hybrids and 17 individual trees were selected out. Conclusion Resistograph method is convenient, economic and reliable for indirect measurement of wood density of E. urophylla×E. tereticornis hybrids. Female and male parents selecting and parental pairing are important for breeding fast-grow and high wood-quality hybrids. Since there is no significant genetic correlation between growth and wood density, it indicates the necessity of selecting separately against the two traits. The hybrids and trees selected out are of valuable plant materials for further cultivating fast-grow and high wood-quality eucalypt hybrids.
2018, 31(2): 83-91. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.012
[Abstract](2816) [FullText HTML] (1039) [PDF 2310KB](432) [Cited by] ()
Objective Understanding the composition, temporal and spatial dynamics of soil seed bank under natural conditions is important for revealing the mechanism of natural forest regeneration. Method The seed amount, type, temporal and spatial dynamics of soil seed bank of Dacrydium pierrei in Bawangling, Hainan were observed for 3 years by geostatistics and other methods. The relationship between seed amount, type, temporal and spatial dynamics and environmental factors was analyzed. Result (1) The proportions of sound seeds, mildewy seeds, hollow seeds, defective seeds in the soil seed bank of Dacrydium pierrei were 0.48%, 45.55%, 29.68%, and 24.30% respectively. (2) The amount of seed followed a reversed 'J' shape curve decreasing relationship with the distance from mother trees. (3) The seed of soil seed bank has obvious spatial pattern. (4) The pattern of vertical distribution of seed amount was litter layer (87.78%) > 0-5 cm layer (11.01%) > 6-10 cm layer (1.2%), the distribution amount showed a sharp decrease in 0-5 cm layer, there was almost no seed to be distributed to the 6-10 cm layer. (5) The amount and ratio of non-viable seeds was higher, reaching up to 100%, the amount of viable seeds was small, the germination rate was as low as 14%, and the seeds lifespan of D. pierrei in the seed bank is less than one year. Conclusion The characteristics of soil seed banks show it is very difficult for D. pierrei to complete natural regeneration.
2018, 31(2): 92-97. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.013
[Abstract](3328) [FullText HTML] (1320) [PDF 1857KB](280) [Cited by] ()
Objective The flowering phenology and reproductive modules distribution of Manglietia glanca Blume was studied to provide a basis for the research of its abortion mechanism in introduction area. Method The M. glanca stands in Arboretum, Baiyun Experimental Farm and Fubo Experimental Farm of the Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry in Pingxiang were chosen as observation object. Taking Dafni's method as reference, the flowering phenology, flowering characteristics and reproductive modules distribution of M. glanca were investigated at both stand and individual plant level, the flowering dynamic was observed, and the size, quantity and location of floral components were calculated. Result The results showed that the flower was bisexual flower. The androecium bore in the bottom of the gynoecium, its height reached only the lower edge of the gynoecium. The flowering process could be divided into six stages, i.e. mixed bud, flower bud, white alabastrum appearing, white alabastrum, blooming and falling. Twice opening/closure flowering was observed during the blossoming process. In suitable region, the flowering characteristics of M. glanca were relatively stable, with moderate intensity blossoming. The effect of altitude on flowering phenology was obvious. The distribution of reproductive modules was also significantly different between forest edge and interior, the fruit setting rate was low. Conclusion According to the result of observation, the flowering phase of M. glanca is tranquil, flowering synchronization index is higher, but conversion rate of blossom into bear fruit is extremely low in Pingxiang, Guangxi.
2018, 31(2): 98-106. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.014
[Abstract](3764) [FullText HTML] (1301) [PDF 3819KB](339) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the sequence characteristics of Dendrobium officinale Method Local BLASTP was used to search the phytocyanin gene of D. officinale(DoPCs) in the database of Dendrobium whole genome, and then the conserved Plastocyanin-like domain and structural characteristics of DoPCs were predicted. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of DoPCs were conducted by using Clustal W and MEGA. Finally, 38 DoPCs were expected to have conserved PCLD domains and two Cys residues, belonging to four subfamilies. Result Among these DoPC proteins, 19 DoPCs contained four copper ligands (His, Cys, His, and Gln/Met), 32 DoPCs were predicted having N-terminal signal peptides, 22 DoPCs had putative C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor signals, and 27 DoPCs had putative arabinogalactan glycomodules. The results of DoPCs expression analysis in symbiotic with Tulasnella calospora and asymbiotic germinated seeds from D. officinale by using RNA-seq data showed that 16 DoPCs were expressed in symbiotic germinated seeds, and DoUCL2, 4 and DoENODL14 had the highest expression with different levels. Seven DoPC genes were obviously up-regulated and only one was down-regulated in symbiotic germinated seeds comparing with that of asymbiotic. Conclusion The study of the protein structure characteristics of DoPCs family in Dendrobium officinale during the whole genome, would help in researching the interaction between Orchidaceae and microorganism, furthermore would serve as data foundation, in researching the molecular mechanism of Orchid mycorrhiza growth.
Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Soil Biochemical Characteristics in an Acacia mangium Plantation
2018, 31(2): 107-113. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.015
[Abstract](2967) [FullText HTML] (986) [PDF 1390KB](375) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on leaf litter decomposition, nutrient dynamics and soil biochemical characteristics during the decomposition process in a Acacia mangium plantation in order to understand the mechanism of influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on leaf litter decomposition of A. mangium and forest soil nutrient management. Method Leaf litter decomposition of the A. mangium plantation in Yunyong Forest Farm was investigated using litter bag method. N and P additions were designed in four treatments:the control, N addition (N 10 g·m-2), P addition (P 5g·m-2), and N+P addition (N 10g·m-2+P 5g·m-2). It was sampled in a three-month interval and then the remaining leaf litter and N, P, K contents were analyzed. Result The N, P and N+P additions improved leaf litter decomposition. The N content of leaf litter with the four treatments remained stable. The P content of leaf litter with P and N+P additions tended to increase and were greater than their initial value during litter decomposition process. The K content of leaf litter with the four treatments changed irregularly. The N, P and N+P additions significantly increased soil organic matter and total N contents and improved activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase and catalase. Conclusion N, P and N+P additions accelerated leaf litter decomposition of the A. mangium, which improved the nutrient cycling of A. mangium plantation.
Impact of Exogenous Juvenile Hormone Analogue on Wax Excretion and Development of Chinese White Wax Scale (Ericerus pela Chavannes)
2018, 31(2): 114-119. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.016
[Abstract](2616) [FullText HTML] (1169) [PDF 1388KB](300) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the effects of exogenous juvenile hormone analogue (JHA) on Chinese white wax scale with focus on wax secretion and development. Method High, medium and low concentrations of JHA were sprayed on the second-instar male scale, smeared on and injected in the stem of host tree respectively. Result The results of test showed that spraying the male second-instar with medium concentration of JHA (2.5 mg·mL-1) can significantly improve the wax secretion of Chinese white wax scale (Ericerus pela), the average production rate in Kunming region reached 41.50%, the average production rate in Emei region reached 25.56%. However, the experimental results show difference between the 2 regions, the reason may be related to the difference of ecological environment in the two areas. For the effects of JHA on pupal development of E. pela, medium and low concentration JHA can promote the weight of pupa, but high concentration showed inhibition; the inhibition of JHA on pupal length was enhanced with the increase of JHA concentration. JHA can promote pupae eclosion, the eclosion rate could reach as high as 62.70%-81.62%. Conclusion The treatment of 2nd instar male larvae with medium concentration of JHA could significantly increase the wax secretion of E. pela. There is a negative correlation between the length of pupa and JHA concentration in the E. pela. The body weight of E. pela pupae showed low concentration promotion and high concentration inhibition; Under spraying and smearing treatments, high concentration can significantly increase the emergence rate of E. pela pupae. The emergence of E. pela pupae is not influenced by its body weight and body length.
Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Studying Culm Shape Development of Dendrocalamus sinicus
2018, 31(2): 120-125. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.017
[Abstract](3562) [FullText HTML] (1257) [PDF 1680KB](446) [Cited by] ()
Objective To select suitable quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) reference genes for studying culm shape development of Dendrocalamus sinicus Chia et J. L. Sun. Method PCR and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the mRNA expression stability of six candidate reference genes (EF-1α, GAPDH, Actin, TIP-41, Tubulin and PP2A) in a set of six bamboo shoot samples at three development stages of the straight-culmed and bending-culmed D. sinicus respectively. The software GeNorm and NomFinder were employed to evaluate the data for reference genes. Quantitative analysis of PTAL was used to test the effectiveness of the candidate reference genes. Result The results showed that six candidate reference genes were of expected size and single peaking melting curve. Of them, Actin, EF-1α and GAPDH had the best stability and correlativity. Meanwhile, these three candidate reference genes had the highest efficiency based on quantitative analysis results of the PTAL gene during the culm development. Conclusion The Actin, EF-1α and GAPDH were optional inference genes for normalizing purpose genes in studying culm shape development of D. sinicus. The study can provide references for gene expression analysis in the culm development of D. sinicus.
2018, 31(2): 126-132. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.018
[Abstract](2979) [FullText HTML] (1065) [PDF 1321KB](296) [Cited by] ()
Objective The aim of this study was to know the different preferences on different parts of Chinese pine by the pine caterpillar and the possible mechanisms which provides the basis information data for the future pest forecast simulation. Methods According to the indoor simulated experiments, the author analyzed the amount of egg mass laid on different types of pine needles by the pine caterpillar adult, the feeding preference and death rate of larvae feeding on different types of pine needles. We tested the content of inclusions in pine needles and analyzed the relationship between the preference and the content of pine needles. Results The results showed that the number of egg mass laid on One-year-old pine needles was 3.10±0.28 which was significantly higher than Two-years-old pine needles and Three-years-old pine needles. The amount of larvae feeding on one-year-old pine needles was the biggest (13.40±0.91) and the death rate was the lowest (13.60%±4.87%), which were significantly better than feeding on Two-years-old pine needles and three-years-old pine needles. The paper results indicated that the pine caterpillar had feeding and oviposition preferences. The preference behaviors were significant positive correlation on water content (P < 0.01), and negative correlation on the contents of total phenol (P < 0.01) and C/N (P < 0.05) of these three kinds of pine needles. Conclusion The pine caterpillar preferred to feed and oviposition on one-year-old pine needles. The reason of the preference behaviors maybe was the higher water content, the lower total phenol and carbon content of One-year-old pine needles.
Effects of BABA on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Antioxidative System in Rhododendron under NaHCO3 Stress
2018, 31(2): 133-140. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.019
[Abstract](3060) [FullText HTML] (1114) [PDF 1620KB](405) [Cited by] ()
Objective To investigate whether β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) could protect Rhododendron from NaHCO3 stress. Method 2-year-old Rhododendron 'shen zhou qi' cuttage seedlings were subjected to sandy culture in nutrient solution to study the effects of different concentrations of BABA (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400μmol·L-1) on photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidative system of Rhododendron leaves under 50 mmol·L-1 NaHCO3 stress. Result The biomass of Rhododendron significantly reduced under NaHCO3 stress. Exogenous BABA of 200μmol·L-1 significantly improved the biomass. Exogenous BABA increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content in Rhododendron leaves under NaHCO3 stress, and significantly increased net photosynthetic rate, reduced stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration. Application of BABA could increase activities of some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and dehydroascorbate reductase under NaHCO3 stress, resulting in significant lower reactive oxygen species accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation in alkali-treated Rhododendron leaves. Conclusion It is suggested that 100-200μmol·L-1 exogenous BABA can effectively alleviate the harm of Rhododendron under NaHCO3 stress.
Study on the Relationship Between Enzyme Activity and Disease Resistance of Different Camellia oleifera Varieties to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz
2018, 31(2): 141-146. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.020
[Abstract](2840) [FullText HTML] (1030) [PDF 1808KB](383) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study 6 Camellia oleifera varieties' disease resistance, the peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, the correlation of disease resistance and the enzyme activity. Method The living wounding inoculation method was used to evaluate disease resistance, the enzyme activities was tested by photometric analysis, the disease resistance and the relevance of the enzyme activity were studied by correlation analysis. Result The results show that the disease infected index of C. gigantocarpa was 26.9, disease length (2.62±0.40) mm, the disease infected index of Camellia oleifera was 68.8, disease length (8.01±2.03) mm, and the disease resistance was in the order of C. gigantocarpa > C. osmantha Ye CX > C. vietnamensis > C. oleifera 'Cenruan 2'> C. oleifera 'Cenruan 3' > Camellia oleifera. The SOD and PPD activities were different. The Defense enzymes induced growth rate, the enzyme AUEAPC comprehensive growth rate of high and medial resistant varieties was higher than that of the highly susceptible varieties. The lesion size, infectious index was uncorrelated with the healthy plants enzyme activity, but the POD, CAT, PPO was high positive correlated with the diseased plants enzyme activity, the SOD was high negative correlation with the diseased plants enzyme activity. Conclusion C. gigantocarpa belongs to high resistant variety; C. vietnamensis and C. osmantha the medial resistant varieties, Camellia oleifera, C. oleifera 'Cenruan 2', C. oleifera 'Cenruan 3' belong to highly susceptible varieties. A clear correlation is found between disease infected index and the enzyme activity. This conclusion further clarifies the disease resistance of C. oleifera and enzymes evaluation, could also be useful for the early identification of disease resistance of C. oleifera.
2018, 31(2): 147-155. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.021
[Abstract](2919) [FullText HTML] (1286) [PDF 2474KB](474) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the dust-retention ability, dynamic change and spatial distribution characteristics among three road protection forests. Method Three types of road protection forests (Pinus tabulaeformis forest, Sabina chinensis forest and Ginkgo biloba forest) were observed continuously in spring at different distances from the road, and the dust retention ability of the road protection forests was compared. Rainfall, wind speed and relative humidity, PM10 and other factors influencing the dynamics and spatial distribution characteristics of dust retention was analyzed. Result (1) There were significant differences in leaf dust retention ability among the three plant species, S. chinensis > G. biloba> P. tabulaeformis, with 4.79 ± 0.20 mg.g-1, 2.48 ± 0.07 mg.g-1, and 1.42 ± 0.04 mg.g-1, respectively; (2) The dust retention amount in the three road protection forests changed with the outside influencing factors, and the dust retention of P. tabulaeformis forest had higher stability than that of the other two species. (3) The amount of dust retention increased when the rainfall was less, and decreased when rainfall became more. The dust retention of P. tabulaeformis and G. biloba forests was more susceptible to rainfall. With the increase of wind speed, the dust retention of three road protection forests was strengthened continuously. When wind speed continued to increase, the amount of dust retention of P. tabulaeformis and Sabina chinensis forests decreased, while that of G. biloba forest significantly increased. (4) The amount of dust retention in the three forests was higher in the north side of the Fifth Ring Road than that in the south of Xiangshan Road. The dust retention in the middle position of P.s tabulaeformis and S. chinensis forests was the lowest, while that in the middle position of G. biloba forest had higher volume. (5) The change of dust retention in the outside part of P. tabulaeformis and S. chinensis forests was more active than that in the interior, while the change of dust retention in interior G. biloba forest was more active than the outside part. Conclusion Dust retention efficiency of road protection forests is affected by tree species, forest structure, environment and weather conditions. In the construction and management of urban plants, relevant factors should be taken into account to achieve full dust retention effect.
Comparison of Photosynthetic Light Response Models of Sophora flavescens and Catsia tora under Phyllostachys edulis Seedlings
2018, 31(2): 156-163. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.022
[Abstract](2533) [FullText HTML] (907) [PDF 1588KB](396) [Cited by] ()
Objective To Compare the photosynthetic light response physiological parameters of four fitting models and identify the adaptability of Sophora flavescens and Catsia tora, so as to provide theoretical reference for the compound management of S. flavescens and C. tora under moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Method The S. flavescens and C. tora seedlings, the nitrogen-fixing plants, were investigated under low (1 600±200 stem·hm-2) and medium (2 400±200 stem·hm-2) and high (3 200±200 stem·hm-2) density of moso bamboo with same sites condition and management level. The light response curves of S. flavescens and C. tora leaves were measured and fitted, as well as analyzed by rectangular hyperbola, non-rectangular hyperbola, modified rectangular hyperbola model and exponential model. Result The values of fitted mean-square error (MSE) and mean absolute deviation (MAE) of S. flavescens and C. tora were the smallest for the modified rectangular hyperbola model and largest for the rectangular hyperbola model. The MSE and MAE estimated by rectangular hyperbola were more than that by modified model under different stand density of moso bamboo. The light response physiological parameters of α, Pnmax and LCP were different in the four models, and both the fitted values of α of S. flavescens and C. tora were different under different bamboo stand density, and the Pnmax, Rd and LCP estimated by rectangular hyperbola were more than the measured values, and these photosynthetic parameters estimated by the modified rectangular hyperbola model was close to the measured values. At the same time, only the modified model enables directly calculating the Lsp. Except for the rectangular hyperbola model, there was a certain law of S. flavescens and C. tora, namely, the net photosynthetic rate increased with the light intensity, then decreased while exceeding the saturation point, and the determinant R2 of modified rectangular hyperbola model was the largest in the four fitted models. Conclusion The photosynthetic light response curve of S. flavescens and C. tora fitted by modified rectangular hyperbola model is more accurate than that fitted by the other models under different stand density of moso bamboo.
Assessing Soil Nutrient Status and Its Relationship with Site Productivity of Betula alnoides Plantations in Daqingshan Mountains, Guangxi
2018, 31(2): 164-169. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.023
[Abstract](2571) [FullText HTML] (984) [PDF 829KB](376) [Cited by] ()
Objective The soil nutrient status in Betula alnoides plantation was investigated to assess the soil fitness of the species and reveal the relationship between soil nutrient regimes and site productivity so as to provide reference for site selection and soil nutrients management of B. alnoides plantation. Method Forty-seven plots with size of 600 m2 were established in B. alnoides plantations in Daqingshan Mountains, Guangxi. Three soil samples were collected in each plot and their soil chemical properties were analyzed, the soil nutritional status was evaluated according to the classification standard of soil nutrition. The plots were then divided into two site groups with high and low productivity based on their site index, and the differences in soil nutrition were further analyzed between the site groups. Result The soil in majority of B. alnoides plantation was strongly acidic. The soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were in upper-middle class, the available phosphorus was of heavy shortage, and the contents of other nutrients were in lower-middle class. The soil organic matter and total potassium contents were significantly different at the level of 0.01, and the available nitrogen content at the level of 0.05 between high and low productivity sites. Conclusion B. alnoides has strong adaptability to soils with low pH value and phosphorus contents. The organic matter, total potassium and available nitrogen contents are the key soil nutrient factors influencing the productivity of B. alnoides plantations in Daqingshan Mountains.
Effects of Intercropping with Vulpia myuros on Soil Nutrients and Enzyme Activity of Camellia oleifera Forest
2018, 31(2): 170-175. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.024
[Abstract](2957) [FullText HTML] (1134) [PDF 1878KB](302) [Cited by] ()
Objective To explore the effect of intercropping with Vulpia myuros on soil and provide reference for the management of Camellia oleifera forest. Method By using the method of random fixed-point sampling, the changes of soil moisture, nutrients contents and enzyme activity of C. oleifera forest in the 0—20 cm soil layer were analyzed during V. myuros decomposition. Result The soil moisture, nutrients and enzyme activity of C. oleifera forest in the 020 cm soil layer were significantly influenced by the treatment of intercropping with V. myuros. Intercropping with V. myuros, the soil moisture increased by 39.62% on the average during decomposition from July to October compared with control treatment (CK). The decomposition of V. myuros not only dramatically improved the content of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium of C. oleifera forest in the 0—20 cm soil layer, but also increased hydrolysable nitrogen and available potassium content. The content of available phosphorus was nine times that of the control in late August. In addition, compared with the CK, the soil urease and acid phosphatase and catalase activity changed significantly during the decomposition of V. myuros, while no significant effect on sucrase activity was found. Conclusion Intercropping with V. myuros can increase the soil fertility to some extents and show a positive effect on soil improvement and sustainable production of C. oleifera forest.
Effects of Light Qualities on Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Camellia oleifera Cutting Stocks
2018, 31(2): 176-182. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.02.025
[Abstract](2872) [FullText HTML] (988) [PDF 2392KB](374) [Cited by] ()
Objective To find the best combination of LED light quality for Camellia oleifera cutting stock. Method Effects of red LED, blue LED and their composite light on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of C. oleifera were studied taking two-years-old cutting stocks of Changlin-4 C. oleifera as test materials and white LED as control. Result Under the irradiation of L1 (red light), the height increment of C. oleifera stocks was the highest, but the apparent quantum efficiency, light compensation point and intercellular CO2 concentration were the lowest. Treated with L7 (blue light), the C. oleifera stocks had the highest light compensation point, and the lowest height increment, dry matter content, sound stock index, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. The diameter increment, dry matter content, sound stock index, photosynthetic pigment content, apparent quantum efficiency, maximum net photosynthetic rate, respiration rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, light energy conversion efficiency and relative electron transport rate of C. oleifera were the highest under the irradiation of L6 (10% red lights + 90% blue lights). While the diameter increment, photosynthetic pigment content, maximum net photosynthetic rate, light energy conversion efficiency and relative electron transfer rate of which all were the lowest with the treatment of L4 (50%red lights + 50%blue lights), furthermore, the non photochemical quenching coefficient was the highest. Conclusion Compared with the control and other treatments, L6 (10% red lights + 90% blue lights) is the ideal light quality to cultivate sound cutting stocks of C. oleifera, which is more conducive to the growth and photosynthetic capacity of Changlin-4 C. oleifera stocks.