2018 Vol. 31, No. 4
2018, 31(4): 0-0.
[Abstract](1542) [PDF 470KB](457) [Cited by] ()
2018, 31(4): 0-0.
[Abstract](1438) [PDF 259KB](361) [Cited by] ()
Community Characteristics and Population Structure of the Narrowly Distributed Endemic Species Burretiodendron kydiifolium
2018, 31(4): 1-8. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.001
[Abstract](3267) [FullText HTML] (1335) [PDF 1727KB](340) [Cited by] ()
Objective The community characteristics and population structure of Burretiodendron kydiifolium, an endemic plant species in the dry valley area of Yuanjiang, China, were analyzed to lay a theoretical basis for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development of endemic plant species. Method 5 sample plots and 4 sample lines were set in the distribution area of Burretiodendron kydiifolium. The amount of B. kydiifolium individuals and the associated species in the community including the scientific name, amount or coverage, diameter at breast height, habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance types were recorded. The importance value, life form of the community and the structure of size classes of B. kydiifolium were analyzed. Result B. kydiifolium distributed mainly in Pupiao, Yuanwalu, Baigoushen, Luyechong and Shidichong. The species distribution was sporadic and fragmented. The vegetation type of B. kydiifolium community was deciduous monsoon forest belonging to monsoon forest. 83 vascular plant species belonging to 69 genera, 39 families in the sample plots were recorded, of which the deciduous tree species were dominant with a proportion as high as 90.9%. The proportion of phanerophyte plants was the highest (60.24%) and followed by the chamaephyte plants (19.28%). The result of the analysis of 412 individuals indicated that the population structure of B. kydiifolium was stable, the percent of class Ⅵ (20 cm ≤ DBH) tree was the lowest (9.47%) and class Ⅴ (15 ≤ DBH < 20 cm) tree was 10.92%. There was no significant difference between other size classes. Because of some influencing factors such as anthropogenic disturbance and habitat conditions, the population structures of growing, declining and stable existed in different sample plots or sample lines. Conclusion The vegetation type is deciduous monsoon forest belonging to monsoon forest. The population structure of B. kydiifolium is stable overall, while the growing, declining and stable structures exist in different sites. The seedlings and sprouting are the main regeneration approaches. The amounts of seedling and the young tree of B. kydiifolium vary greatly among different sites. Droughty habitat and anthropogenic disturbance are the reasons leading to poor regeneration of B. kydiifolium population.
2018, 31(4): 9-17. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.002
[Abstract](2799) [FullText HTML] (1081) [PDF 1513KB](377) [Cited by] ()
Objective To evaluate the effect of parameter setting on the target solution quality of forest spatial planning via simulated annealing algorithm. Method The tested parameters included the number of initial solutions (N), the number of iterations per new temperature (nrep), initial temperature (T) and cooling rate (r). The planning target was formulated to make timber production maximum over ten 5-year-planning periods, which should subject to the even-flow of harvest volume and area restriction model. The simulation datasets included five hypothetical datasets, which encompassed 3 300-81 600 binary decision variables. Result The results showed that the coefficients of variation of objective function values for all the planning alternatives only varied from 0.18% to 14.95%, indicating the distinguished stability of simulated annealing algorithm. Parameters nrep and T can be estimated with the number of forests using polynomial (R2=0.85) and exponential (R2=0.66) functions respectively, however, the parameter r can be estimated with the reciprocal of the number of forests using polynomial function (R2=0.98). The values of parameter N was not related to the number of forests, but it should be somewhat above 500 times. Meanwhile, we also found that the number of units across a forest landscape not only affected the optimal values of each parameter, but also had significant effects on the probability of locating satisfactory solutions (PN) and resolution efficiency (RE) of simulated annealing algorithm, in which the PN increased linearly with the increase of number of units within a forest landscape (R2=0.98), but the RE presented a typical linear downtrend for the analytical datasets (R2=0.55). Conclusion It is concluded that the quality of solutions of simulated annealing algorithm is sensitive to the parameters used and the size of planning options. In order to ensure the stability and quality of planning outputs, forest managers should determine the appropriate values of parameters of simulated annealing algorithm carefully when applied it to make forest planning in practice.
2018, 31(4): 18-22. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.003
[Abstract](3325) [FullText HTML] (1363) [PDF 2080KB](447) [Cited by] ()
Objective The study aims at exploring and excavating the potential function of large genome fragment cloned from Populus euphratica, and finding out the potential gene clusters with breeding value. Method Based on BIBAC library, the fragment 78A2D10 from the genome of P. euphratica, was inserted into the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by the method of floral-dip. Resistance selection, molecular identification and phenotypic observation were applied to identify and analyze the transgenic plants. Result Fifteen transgenic plants with specific phenotype were obtained in the research. Compared with the wild plants, the positive plants showed the characters such as inhibited growth of the stems, 3 times rosette leaf area, more leaves, crimping blade edge, delayed bolting with 13 weeks, height increasing by 32.0 cm, developing lateral stems and prolonged lifetime with 7 weeks. Conclusion The fragment of 78A2D10 may prolong the vegetative growth and lifetime of plants. The fragment may be related to the vegetative growth of plants.
Effects of Carbon Input Alteration on Soil Enzyme Activities in a Querqus aliena var. acuteserrata Maxim Forest in Baotianman, Henan
2018, 31(4): 23-30. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.004
[Abstract](2502) [FullText HTML] (1171) [PDF 1595KB](436) [Cited by] ()
Objective To determine the relationship between soil enzyme activities and carbon inputs by experimentally altering the quantity of forest floor litter. Method In an age sequence of natural Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests (stand age approximately 40 years, 80 years, and>160 years) in the Baotianman Nature Reserve, He'nan Province, three treatments were applied, including doubling of litter (LA), litter removal (LR) and the control (CK). Measurements were made on soil physiochemical properties, microbial biomass, and activities of oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase and β-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase). Result The stand age affected only the β-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase; its activity decreased with the increasing stand age. The litter treatments had no significant effect on oxidative enzymes, but the activity of β-glucosidase increased with the increasing litter inputs, ranking in the order of LA > CK > LR. The change pattern of microbial C/N ratio (characterization of microbial structure) were not consistent with that of specific enzyme activity (microbial function). Conclusion The changes in the quantity of carbon inputs can affect soil enzyme activities by modifying soil environmental factors and nutrient inputs, but the effects vary among enzymes. Forest stand age is also a factor affecting soil enzyme activities.
Expression of Two Reporter Genes in Clonal Cell Line RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 Developed from Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
2018, 31(4): 31-37. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.005
[Abstract](3102) [FullText HTML] (1140) [PDF 1775KB](377) [Cited by] ()
Objective In the previous research, a monoclonal cell line RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 was established from Papilio demoleus cell line RIRI-PaDe-2 and it was found that the two cell lines could be infected by wild-type Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). Especially, RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 was susceptible to AcMNPV and exhibited a higher production of AcMNPV polyhedral per infected cell averagely compared to the parent RIRI-PaDe-2 cells. The aim of this study is to further understand the characteristics of RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 in expressing exogenous genes. Method The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system was used to establish recombinant baculovirus carrying β-galactosidase gene and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene. The RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 was infected with recombinant virus. The expression levels of the two recombinant proteins were detected at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after infection and compared with RIRI-PaDe-2 cells. The methods of cells morphology analysis, growth analysis and chromosome analysis were used to obtain the biological characteristics of RIRI-PaDe-2-C6. Result RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 and RIRI-PaDe-2 could be infected by recombinant baculovirus. The expression of β-galactosidase (β-Gal) was significantly higher than that of RIRI-PaDe-2 (P < 0.05), but no significant difference in expression level of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) was observed between RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 and RIRI-PaDe-2 (P>0.05). All cells were spindle-shaped in RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 which was more homogeneous than RIRI-PaDe-2. The cell population doubling time of RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 was 94.94 hours which was longer than those of RIRI-PaDe-2 (67.42 hous). The averages chromosome numbers of RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 was 52.26±30.48 which was significant different from that of RIRI-PaDe-2 (73.19±24.27). Conclusion The differences in expressing exogenous genes and biological characteristics are significant between clone cell line RIRI-PaDe-2-C6 and its parent cell line RIRI-PaDe-2.
Transcriptome Sequencing and Differential Expression Analysis of Bitter and Astringent Substances Biosynthesis Related Gene in Dendrocalamus latiflorus
2018, 31(4): 38-46. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.006
[Abstract](3965) [FullText HTML] (1407) [PDF 1351KB](281) [Cited by] ()
Objective To reveal the effect of avoiding light treatment on the expression of genes related to the synthesis of bitter and astringent substances in Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoot. Method Transcriptome sequencing was carried out on bamboo shoots with natural growth (CK) and soil covered conditions (EP) by using Illumina HiSeqTM 2500 platform, and the differential expression genes were analyzed. Result Transcriptome sequencing produced a total of 36.45 Gb raw data, and then was assembled into 53 388 Unigene by redundant processing. Comparing the obtained Unigene to Nr, Pfam, COG, Swissprot, GO and KEGG, the function annotation showed that a total of 31 462 Unigene were homologous to other species. In the comparative analysis of the Unigene expression in CK and EP experiment, 1 846 differential expression genes were screened out, among which 998 genes were up-regulated and 848 genes were down-regulated in EP experiment. The KEGG results showed that the differential expression genes were significantly enriched into 32 pathways, which included glycolysis, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis associated with the synthesis of bitter and astringent substances. Further studies showed that the expression of PFK, ENO, PPY-AT/HPP-AT, LAR enzyme genes involved in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids and tannins in D. latiflorus shoots decreased in EP treatment, and the results of qRT-PCR were generally consistent with the results of sequencing. Conclusion Avoiding light treatment can inhibit the gene expression of key enzymes of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tannin biosynthesis, which may ultimately affect the synthesis of bitter and astringent substances in D. latiflorus shoots.
2018, 31(4): 47-52. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.007
[Abstract](3202) [FullText HTML] (1330) [PDF 1430KB](430) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the variations of age structure and spatial distribution pattern of Pinus yunnanensis forest as well as the spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of individuals in different growth stages, so as to further understand the intrinsic mechanism of the P. yunnanensis population structure and distribution pattern and its formation from the view point of spatial pattern. Method This study is based on data from sampling plots of P. yunnanensis natural population in Tianchi Nature Reserve of Yunlong County, Yunnan Province. The method of substituting space for time and Ripley's L function (based on the derivatives of Ripley's K function) was used to analyze the structure, spatial distribution patterns and spatial association at different growth stages under different scales of a P. yunnanensis natural forest population. Result The results showed that the DBH class and height class structure of P. yunnanensis natural population were complete, presented an invert J shape. With the scale increased, the distribution of P. yunnanensis natural population presented an "aggregate-random" type. At juvenile and small tree stages, the spatial distribution pattern presented an aggregate distribution at large scales, transformed into a random distribution with the scale increased. At medium tree stage, the spatial distribution pattern presented an aggregate distribution. To the stage of large tree, the spatial distribution pattern presented a random distribution. The different growth stages of P. yunnanensis natural population was significantly positively correlated at all scales. Conclusion The structure of P. yunnanensis natural population belonged to a increasing type. P. yunnanensis natural population at different growth stages presents different distribution pattern, indicating a strong spatial dynamic characteristic. The positive relationship between the growth stages of P. yunnanensis natural population has the advantage for population maintenance.
Research of Damage Monitoring Models and Judgment Rules of Pinus yunnanensis with Tomicus yunnanensis
2018, 31(4): 53-60. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.008
[Abstract](2665) [FullText HTML] (1449) [PDF 1414KB](417) [Cited by] ()
Objective By analyzing the hyperspectral features of Pinus yunnanensis in different damage levels and building monitoring models, to establish the damage monitoring model and judgment rules for integrated control of Tomicus yunnanensis. Method In shoot damage period of T. yunnanensis, the imaging hyperspectral data of young and middle-aged P. yunnanensis in study area were obtained by SOC710VP, and hyperspectral features were analyzed to extract hyperspectral features parameters to build damage levels detection models and judgment rules. Result With the aggravation of damage level of T. yunnanensis, the reflectance spectral curves of P. yunnanensis gradually declined at green bands (510-560 nm) and near-infrared bands (720-1 036 nm), and the peak values of spectral first derivative curves gradually decreased at red edge (680-760 nm). In 509-539, 549-564, 595-677, 687-692, 702-807, 838-875 nm, and 891-1 031 nm, the damage levels and reflectance and first derivative of P. yunnanensis needle were significantly correlated. Hyperspectral parameters SDr, Dy, (D-H)/(D+H), SDnir, and (SDnir-SDr)/(SDnir+SDr) were used to establish the monitoring models, the R2 of measured value and predicted value all reached 0.9. The accuracy of quantitative judgment rules based on 4 monitoring models were higher than 80%, the rules (Healthy (< 1.589), Slight damage1.589, 2.465), Moderate damage2.465, 3.381), Severe damage (≥ 3.381)) based on multivariable linear regression model y=-7.720x1+1.275x2+1.251x3-4.835x4+1.135x5+6.632, reached the highest precision (93.33%). Conclusion The monitoring models and judgment rules based on hyperspectral feature parameters can monitor the damage level of T. yunnanensis effectively.
Physiological Response of Ormosia henryi Seedlings with Inoculating Different Rhizobium Strains to Moderate Drought Stress
2018, 31(4): 61-69. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.009
[Abstract](2771) [FullText HTML] (1061) [PDF 1864KB](335) [Cited by] ()
Objective The study aims at exploring the physiological responses of Ormosia henryi seedlings with inoculation of different rhizobium strains under moderate drought stress and screening the excellent strains for drought resistance. Method Using O. henryi seedlings inoculated with different rhizobium strains as test material, the continuous drought stress experiment were designed under pot culture. After 23-day's drought stress, the physiological indexes such as relative conductivity, MDA, soluble sugar, free proline content, SOD activity, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined, and the drought resistance of each treatment seedlings was evaluated by the membership function comprehensive method. Result The results showed that the relative membrane of O. henryi seedlings inoculated with rhizobium strains significantly decreased by 29.4%-73.9% under moderate drought stress. Compared with the CK (not inoculated), the average proline content, soluble sugar content and SOD activity increased by 199.8%, 135.3%, and 200.2%, the MDA decreased by 26.2%-78.0%, and the highest photosynthetic rate was 11.6 times higher than that of CK treatment. The light energy conversion efficiency and the potential activity of PS Ⅱ of O. henryi seedlings increased after inoculated with rhizobium strains, the ability of adjusting and adapting to drought stress strengthen. Conclusion The effect of different strains to drought resistance of O. henryi seedlings shows significant difference (P < 0.05). The comprehensive evaluation results of drought resistance show that the mean value of membership function of O. henryi seedlings inoculated with 6 kind of strains were from 0.62 to 0.81, indicating these seedlings are highly drought resistance treatments, and these strains could be regarded as excellent drought resistant strains.
Construction of RNA Interference Vector of Ericerus pela Chavannes) ws Gene and Preparation of dsRNA by Prokaryotic Expression
2018, 31(4): 70-74. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.010
[Abstract](3172) [FullText HTML] (1311) [PDF 1162KB](399) [Cited by] ()
Objective This study aims at construct the interference vector of Ericerus pela wax synthase gene and prokaryotic expression system in vitro, and prepare a large number of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of E. pela ws gene at low cost. Method The cloned E. pela ws gene fragment was inserted into L4440 vector to construct E. pela ws-L4440 gene interference vector. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into HT115 competent cell, then induced by IPTG to get the dsRNA corresponding to target fragment. Result The interference vector of Ericerus pela ws gene was successfully constructed in vitro, and the dsRNA can also be expressed by HT115 competent cell with transformed recombinant plasmid induced by IPTG. The average production of dsRNA was 1 705 ng·mL-1. Conclusion The expression of the dsRNA of E. pela ws gene by prokaryotic expression system may lay foundation for using RNAi technology to study the function and mechanism of E. pela ws gene.
Analysis and Evaluation of Stand Spatial Structure of Platycladus orientalis Ecological Forest in Jiulongshan of Beijing
2018, 31(4): 75-82. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.011
[Abstract](2490) [FullText HTML] (1019) [PDF 1754KB](445) [Cited by] ()
Objective This study aims at providing a theoretical basis for the optimization and adjustment of the spatial structure of the Platycladus orientalis ecological forest and the optimization of the spatial structure of other ecological forest in the region by analyzing the spatial structure of P. orientalis ecological forest and evaluating its management urgency. Method Based on the data field-measured at P. orientalis ecological forest in Jiulongshan of Beijing, the spatial structure characteristics of P. orientalis ecological forest were analyzed by using seven spatial structure parameters including the mingling, dominance, uniform angle index, crowding, stand layer index, open degree and competition index. 10 indices were selected to conduct the evaluation index system of management urgency from the aspects of density, pattern, competition and mingling, and the standards were established. Meanwhile, the management urgency of P. orientalis ecological forest was evaluated. Result The spatial structure of the P. orientalis ecological forest was relatively simple, the pattern of distribution was random, the tree species composition was single, the trees of non-mixture and low-mixture were dominant, and showed a trend of single aggregation. The tree size differentiation was insignificant, and the P. orientalis was in an obviously dominant position and with higher stand density. It contained a higher proportion of dense and very dense trees; most trees were in the middle and upper layers, and its layer index was 0.288, suggesting that the layer structure was not obvious; the stand open degree and competition index were 0.274 and 0.318 respectively, which were in the state of insufficient growth space and moderate competition. The management urgency index of the P. orientalis forest was 0.8, and its grade of management urgency were particularly urgent, indicating that most characteristics of P. orientalis ecological forest did not meet the standards. It is needed to take effective measures to optimize the forest allocation and improve forest condition in order to achieve sustainable development of P. orientalis ecological forest. Conclusion Analyzing the stand spatial structure and evaluating its management urgency can find the unreasonable characteristics of forest structure, and develop the adjustment measures of space structure, so as to promote the development toward the healthy and stable direction for P. orientalis ecological forest, and achieve continuous gain of the ecological, economic and social benefits.
2018, 31(4): 83-89. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.012
[Abstract](2717) [FullText HTML] (1100) [PDF 1556KB](369) [Cited by] ()
Objective To investigate the influence of planting density on stand growth characteristics of Mytilaria laosensis and to provide guidance for the density management. Method A 6-year-old M. laosensis plantation with different densities (2 500, 1 667, 1 111, 833 and 625 trees·hm-2) at Yunfu of Guangdong Province was used to investigate the average height, dominant height, diameter at breast height (DBH), survival rate and the height to the living branch (HLB) for 4 successive years. Result The results showed that, as planting density increased, the DBH and current annual increment (CAI) of DBH, survival rate, individual tree volume and CAI of individual tree volume declined significantly, while the HLB, stand volume and CAI of stand volume increased significantly. In a certain range of densities, the planting densities had few effects on stand height growth. In the sixth year after planting, the maximum mean height (11.4 m) occurred at a stand of 1 667 trees·hm-2 and the maximum dominant height (13.3 m) was found in the 1 111 trees·hm-2 density; the maximum CAI of height was 1.5 m·a-1 which occurred at a stand of 625 trees·hm-2; the average DBH, CAI of DBH, individual tree volume and CAI of individual tree volume showed the highest at the stand density of 625 trees·hm-2, which were 14.3 cm, 2.5 cm·a-1, 0.097 3 m3 and 0.038 2 m3·a-1, respectively, increased by 27.7%, 81.0%, 49.0% and 82.4% compared with the planting density of 2 500 trees·hm-2; the HLB, stand volume and CAI of stand volume were the highest at the stand density of 2 500 trees·hm-2, which were 6.0 m, 149.4 m3·hm-2 and 44.8 m3·hm-2·a-1, respectively, 2.61, 2.52 and 1.95 times that of 625 trees·hm-2 density. Conclusion The results of studying the effect of planting density on the growth of M. laosensis can be used as reference for the cultivation of M. laosensis.
2018, 31(4): 90-97. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.013
[Abstract](2969) [FullText HTML] (1276) [PDF 2126KB](282) [Cited by] ()
Objective To investigate the rational cutting intensity and maintain forest resource sustainability by studying the soil nitrogen change after cutting. Method Standard mean difference (SMD) was applied as a statistical index to measure the effect scale using Review Manager 5.3. The papers published during 1983 to early 2017 were used to study the effects of cutting on soil nitrogen by meta analysis. Result Cutting effectively decreased soil total nitrogen content[SMD=-0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI), -1.04——0.07) < 0], and increased soil NH4+-N and NO3--N content significantly[SMD=0.99 (95% CI, 0.51-1.47) >0; SMD=2.34 (95% CI, 0.49-4.19) >0], but had no significant effect on soil alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen content[SMD=-0.30 (95% CI, -1.06-0.47)]. The change of soil nitrogen varied with cutting intensity, and clear cutting had a greater effect on it. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that cutting intensity should be reasonably controlled, it is needed to reduce high-intensity selective cutting, promote low-intensity selective cutting and avoid clear cutting.
Studies on the Growth Characteristics of Nitrogen-fixing Bacterium in Soil of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest
2018, 31(4): 98-103. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.014
[Abstract](3063) [FullText HTML] (1335) [PDF 2149KB](258) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the growth characteristics of functional strains and to explore the principles of suitable bacteria. Method In this study, the effects of 10 pH gradients and 8 temperature gradients on the growth of 103 strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were researched. Result There were 103 bacterial strains containing nifH gene. The most suitable growth conditions of these strains were 28℃, pH=7. The temperature ranges suitable for growth were 20, 28 and 37℃, the pH values were 4, 5, 7 and 8. The strain 6003 was suitable to grow in low temperature alkaline soil, while the strains 09ul27, 1010, 2024, 029, 7002, lk2-1c (2) and zk3-1 were suitable to grow in high temperature alkaline soil. The strains suitable for growth in acid and alkaline soils were 1012 and 2025. According to the different growth characteristics of the bacteria, all the strains were classified into 9 categories by using SSI algorithm. Both the fifth and seventh categories belonged to Burkholderia, the second category belonged to Bacillus. There was no obvious clustering phenomenon in the other categories, and there was no significant correlation between the growth condition classification and the strains identification. Conclusion The suitable growth environment of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria is similar, and the most suitable growth conditions of these strains are 28℃, pH=7. 10 strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria suitable in special environment are screened out. These strains are initially identified as Bacillus subtilis subsp, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Chitinophaga pinensis, Burkholderia xenovorans, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia bannensis. The results also show that the growth characteristics of the strains are not completely correlated with their biological characteristics by growth condition cluster analysis and 16S rDNA identification.
2018, 31(4): 104-112. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.015
[Abstract](2969) [FullText HTML] (914) [PDF 2667KB](377) [Cited by] ()
Objective This study selected the Eucalyptus maideni woodland, Cupressus duclouxiana woodland, Pinus massoniana woodland and the natural secondary shrubs, low coverage Dodonaea viscosa and high coverage D. viscosa shrubs to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture at different vegetation restoration patterns in karst faulted basins small watershed and to provide reference for vegetation restoration in this area. Method The rainfall and soil moisture were measured from May 2016 to April 2017 by using automatic weather observation system and soil moisture sensor. The temporal and spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and the characteristics of soil water attenuation under drought conditions were studied by using the coefficient of variation and Kriging interpolation analysis method. Result (1) In different soil layers of the same vegetation type, the vertical variations of soil volume water content during the rainy and dry seasons were similar, and the soil moisture content in the rainy season was significantly higher than that in the dry season (P < 0.05). Each forest was moderately variant (Cv:12.88%~28.66%). (2) In rainy and dry seasons, the distribution of active layer and sub-active layer in the same woodland was different, but the distribution was same in different soil depth of the same shrub. (3) The soil volume water content of the six kinds of woodland reached the maximum value in August to September with a sufficient rainfall, ranging from 26.25%~44.08%. In the case of obviously insufficient rainfall, March to April reached the minimum value, ranging between 9.48%~17.47%. (4) The soil volume water content of 0~30 cm soil layer of three kind woodlands and 0~10 cm soil layer of three shrub species decreased to 1 day before rainfall for about 10 days. The 10~30 cm soil layer of low coverage and high coverage D. viscosa samples returned to the level of 1 day before rainfall for about 15 days and close to the plant wilting coefficient. Conclusion The soil volume water content of different vegetation restoration patterns in rainy season, dry season and average monthly shows that the E. maideni woodland > natural secondary shrubs > C. duclouxiana woodland > P. massoniana woodland > high coverage D. viscosa shrubs > low coverage D. viscosa shrubs. The seasonal drought and temporary drought in karst faulted basins are serious, after sufficient rainfall and reached the field capacity, the soil moisture of forest land and shrub in karst faulted basins is available to plants for 10~15 days.
2018, 31(4): 113-117. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.016
[Abstract](2642) [FullText HTML] (1208) [PDF 855KB](377) [Cited by] ()
Objective To approach the effect of altitude on the quality of bamboo shoots and provide reference for the cultivation of high-quality bamboo shoots. Method The appearance quality, nutrient quality and eating quality of bamboo shoots from three altitudinal gradients (110, 370, 560 m) were investigated. Result The shoot diameter, length, individual weight, edible parts ratios, soluble sugar, vitamin C, cystine, tyrosine and proportion of essential amino acids, tannin, oxalic acid of bamboo shoots were markedly influenced by altitudinal gradient (P < 0.05). The protein, fat, starch, total flavone, other free amino acids, essential amino acids, total amino acid, cellulose, lignose, the content of bitter, delicious, sweet amino acids and proportion of sweet, delicious amino acids showed no significant difference among different altitudes (P>0.05), but the content of aromatic amino acid, proportion of aromatic amino acids and bitter amino acids were also significantly affected by altitudinal gradients (P < 0.05). Conclusion It is suggested that the appearance quality of bamboo shoots was markedly influenced by altitudinal gradients, the appearance quality of shoots at middle and high altitude is superior to that of low altitude. The nutrition quality and eating quality of bamboo shoots are relatively obvious influenced by altitudinal gradients, but the influence of altitude on appearance quality was more significant.
2018, 31(4): 118-125. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.017
[Abstract](3455) [FullText HTML] (1359) [PDF 2400KB](368) [Cited by] ()
Objective The expression of Populus class Ⅰ KNOX genes during the regeneration of adventitious shoot and adventitious root as well as in the vascular cambium were analyzed to reveal the function of class Ⅰ KNOX genes in woody plants meristem formation and differentiation. Method The nucleic acid and amino acid sequence of Populus class Ⅰ KNOX genes were obtained through blast analysis using Arabidopsis STM protein sequence as query in the genome of Populus trichocarpa. The phylogenetic tree was constructed according to the full length protein sequences of class Ⅰ KNOX genes from Arabidopsis and Populus. The intron/exon structure and domain composition were presented along the phylogenetic tree. The regeneration of adventitious bud and adventitious root using leaf and stem explants from 84 K (Populus alba×P. glandulosa) was used to simulate the shoot and root apical meristem initiation and differentiation, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to analyze the expression of Populus class Ⅰ KNOX genes during the regeneration of adventitious bud/root and in the vascular cambium related region. Result Ten class Ⅰ KNOX genes were found in the genome of P. trichocarpa through sequence alignment analysis. According to the phylogenetic relationship and gene structure similarity, class Ⅰ KNOX genes from Arabidopsis and Populus could be divided into three groups. Arabidopsis KNAT2 and KNAT6 along with their Populus homolog genes belong to group 1, Arabidopsis STM and BP along with their Populus homolog genes belong to group 2. Group 3, to be noticed, was unique to Populus. Through investigating the expression alteration of Populus class Ⅰ KNOX genes during the regeneration of adventitious buds, it was found that group 1 genes showed increased expression during the transition from bud primordium to adventitious bud, while group 2 and group 3 genes demonstrated higher expression during the transition from meristem to bud primordium. As for the regeneration of adventitious root, group 1 genes showed increased expression in the stage when root primordium differentiate to adventitious root, while group 2 and group 3 genes demonstrated higher expression in the adventitious root formation stage. In addition, all Populus class Ⅰ KNOX genes had an expression in the vascular cambium, and the expression of group 1 gene PtKNAT2/6b and group 2 genes ARK1 and ARK2 were especially high. Conclusion Group 3 is a new group occurred during the evolution of class Ⅰ KNOX genes from A. thaliana to P. trichocarpa, which was along with group 1 and group 2 to participate in the regulation of different stages of meristem formation and differentiation. Most importantly, PtKNAT2/6b, ARK1 and ARK2 show high expression in the vascular cambium, which may play important roles in vascular cambium activity maintenance and xylem differentiation.
Cloning and Expression Analysis of ThP5CS and Thδ-OAT Gene in Taxodium Hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407' under Drought Stress
2018, 31(4): 126-134. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.018
[Abstract](2820) [FullText HTML] (1030) [PDF 6062KB](385) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the function of ThP5CS and Thδ-OAT in T. hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407' (Taxodium mucronatum ♀×T. distichum ♂), and to explore the relationships between the genes and drought resistance of T. hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407'. This research would provide candidate gene resources for resistance breeding in Taxodium. Method Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was applied to clone the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of P5CS and δ-OAT in T. hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407'. And then, the structures and functions were predicted with bioinformatics analysis. Finally, a natural drought and rewatering experiment was conducted to investigate the expression patterns of ThP5CS and Thδ-OAT by semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sRT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Result The cDNA sequences of P5CS and δ-OAT in T. hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407' were isolated and then were named as ThP5CS and Thδ-OAT. The full-length sequence of Thδ-OAT and ThP5CS contained open reading frames (ORF) of 1 494 bp and 1 545 bp respectively, and encoded polypeptides of 497 and 514 amino acids residues. The protein sequences of Thδ-OAT exhibited 92% sequence identities with Pinus sylvestris L., and the protein sequences of ThP5CS exhibited 87% sequence identities with Anthurium amnicola. sRT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis showed that in T. hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407' and its parents, ThP5CS showed an increasing expression pattern and then decreasing in the period of drought and recovery. While the relative expression of Thδ-OAT showed differentiations in T. hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 407', T. distichum, and T. mucronatum. Conclusion ThP5CS might be important in response of Taxodium to drought and could play a leading role in proline synthesis.
2018, 31(4): 135-141. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.019
[Abstract](2750) [FullText HTML] (988) [PDF 2502KB](276) [Cited by] ()
Objective To establish the tissue culture of vitro propagation regeneration system of Betula pendula Roth 'Dalecarlica'. Method Young stems of Betula pendula Roth.'Dalecarlica' with axillary and apical bud were used as experimental materials to obtain regenerated plants by explants disinfection, original culture, successive transfer culture, multiplication culture and rooting culture. The factors influencing the rapid growth of the tissue culture were also analyzed. Result The results shows that:the young stem segments in vitro culture for optimum medium and hormone combination was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.2 mg·L-1 GA3+20 g·L-1 Sucrose + 6 g·L-1 Agar. The optimum rooting medium was 1/2MS+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+20 g·L-1 Sucrose+6 g·L-1 Agar. The rooted seedlings were transplanted to the sterilized matrixes with peat soil and sand in the ratio of 3:1. The tissue-cultured seedlings grew strongly and the survival rate was over 80% after 15 days. Conclusion Using tissue culture technique to rapid propagation in vitro for Betula pendula Roth 'Dalecarlica', a rapid propagation in vitro regeneration system was established. It could lay a research foundation for Betula pendula Roth 'Dalecarlica' elite breeding.
Study of Aroma Compounds in Flowers of Dendrobium chrysotoxum in Different Florescence Stages and Diurnal Variation of Full Blooming Stage
2018, 31(4): 142-149. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.020
[Abstract](3759) [FullText HTML] (1841) [PDF 1633KB](382) [Cited by] ()
Objective To analyze the aroma compounds in flowers of Dendrobium chrysotoxum, in order to clarify the material basis of floral scents formation and provide reference for breeding. Method The aromatic component categories and their release amounts in flowers of native Den. chrysotoxum in different florescence stages were detected and the diurnal variation of full blooming stage were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPEM) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Result The floral scents of 33 volatiles were identified as scent components in Den. chrysotoxum, including 15 terpenes, 7 esters, 6 alcohols, 2 aromatic compounds, 2 ketones and 1 aldehydes. Ester and terpenoids were the dominant components of these scents, composing exceed 80% to all detected compounds. The aromatic component categories and their release amounts at full blossoming stage increased at first and then decreased at different sampling time, and reached the maximum at 2:00 p.m. In different blooming stages, the contents of terpenes, esters, alcohols, aromatic compounds, aldehydes and ketones increase and then decrease, and reached the highest at full opening stage. Conclusion The aroma compounds and their release amounts are distinctly different at different florescence stages and show a diurnal variation in full blooming of Den. chrysotoxum. Octyl acetate, β-ocimene, α-pinene and benzeneacetaldehydo are the main substances responsible for the floral scent formation in Den. chrysotoxum.
2018, 31(4): 150-157. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.021
[Abstract](2896) [FullText HTML] (1011) [PDF 1915KB](301) [Cited by] ()
Objective To quantitatively study the influences of spatial structure on the crown growth of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in order to realize the visual simulation of Chinese fir crown growth based on spatial structure. Method Selecting Huangfengqiao State-owned Forest Farm in Hunan Province as a trial plot, the data of crown shape and spatial structure were investigated after different spatial structure units were selected and divided in stand. The under living branch height, crown height and crown width in four cardinal directions were defined as crown shape description factors. Meanwhile, the affecting distance and relative tree height of surrounding trees were defined as horizontal spatial structure parameter and vertical spatial structure parameter. The stepwise regression analysis method was used to analyze the relationships among crown description factors, age, horizontal and vertical spatial structure parameters. As a result, the models of Chinese fir crown growth with different spatial structures were established. According to the fitting method of B-spline curve, the crown shape of Chinese fir was simulated, and 3D Chinese fir tree models in different growth stages were built. Based on the 3D dynamic rendering technology, the visual simulation of Chinese fir crown growth progress was realized. Result With the stepwise regression analysis on the variable of age, the horizontal and vertical spatial structure parameters, the results shows that there are significant correlations between under living branch height and variables of age and vertical spatial structure parameter. Also, there are significant correlations between crown height and variables of age and vertical spatial structure parameter. Coefficients of determination (R2) of both under living branch height model and crown height growth model are 0.754 and 0.813. It shows extremely significant correlations between crown width and variables of age and horizontal spatial structure parameter. And the R2 is 0.623. Based on the crown growth model of Chinese fir and 3D dynamic rendering technology, the crown growth visual simulation of four parts in the cardinal directions is achieved. Conclusion Using stepwise regression analysis method, the relationships between Chinese fir crown and age, the spatial structure data were analyzed and the growth models of under living branch height, crown height and crown width were built. Combined with 3D dynamic rendering technology and using MOGRE 3D rendering engine, the tree crown visual simulation of Chinese fir was realized based on spatial structure.
2018, 31(4): 158-163. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.022
[Abstract](2819) [FullText HTML] (868) [PDF 929KB](313) [Cited by] ()
Objective To evaluate the resistance of 110 Camellia oleifera clones to anthracnose in order to screen and extend elite resistant varieties. Method Based on anthracnose investigation in 2014 and 2016, the disease index was used to evaluate the resistance of 110 clones. Result No clone under assessment was found with immune, highly susceptible or highly resistant to anthracnose. 10 clones were resistant, 30 clones were moderately resistant, 65 clones were moderately susceptible, 5 clones were susceptible. Conclusion Based on the results of two years' survey, 10 resistant clones are selected, which can be used as references and breeding materials for further studying the resistance mechanism on C. oleifera.
Effect of Drought Stress and Re-watering on Physiological Characteristics of Dendrocalamopsis oldhamii Container Seedling
2018, 31(4): 164-171. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.023
[Abstract](2966) [FullText HTML] (957) [PDF 2266KB](369) [Cited by] ()
Objective In order to lay a theoretical basis for the large-scale management and water-saving irrigation of Dendrocalamopsis oldhamii container seedling, the method of simulating drought environment was employed to study the physiological characteristics of different nutrition absorb organs with different drought levels. Method The tissue culture D. oldhamii were selected as research object. The antioxidant enzyme, malonaldehyde, leaf photosynthetic pigment content and the roots activities were measured with different drought stress levels. Result The experiment showed that under simulated drought environment, with the increase of drought stress, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids of D. oldhamii leaves decreased significantly (P < 0.05), after rehydration, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b recovered significantly (P < 0.05), but the carotenoids was not significant(P>0.05). The roots activities under moderate drought stress (MS) and severe drought stress (SS) decreased by 14.35% and 33.31% compared to control (P < 0.05), and after re-watering, the root activities increased by 96.75% and 73.84% respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) content both in leaves and roots increased significantly, and after re-watering all of them decreased significantly. Moreover, the compensation ability after moderate drought stress (MS-CK) was significantly better than that after severe drought stress (SS-CK) (P < 0.05). Conclusion Under simulated drought environment, with the increase of drought stress, the root activity and leaf photosynthetic pigment content decrease significantly, on the contrary, the SOD, CAT and POD activity as well as MDA content increase. After re-watering, the root activity and leaf pigment content rise significantly, and the SOD, CAT and POD activity as well as MDA content decrease significantly. Moreover, the compensation ability under moderate drought is significantly better than that under severe drought. Different nutrition organs are not the same in removing active oxygen and repairing ability. It is also found that there is a negative correlation between the root activity and the photosynthetic pigment content of D. oldhamii and the degree of drought stress, while MDA content, SOD, CAT and POD activity are positively related to the degree of drought stress.
2018, 31(4): 172-182. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.024
[Abstract](3769) [FullText HTML] (1520) [PDF 1114KB](600) [Cited by] ()
Objective Application progress, ecological factor and controlling-release carrier types of insect sex pheromone mating disruption are discussed in depth, it could provide technical references for controlling insect pests with the mating disruption technology. Method The application, environmental factors, controlling-release carrier types (capillary, microcapsule, Puffer®, SPLAT®, paraffin, fiber, electrospun/nanofibers) and the mechanism of sex pheromone mating disruption at home and abroad were presented, in addition, the merits and demerits of different controlling-release carrier were indicated. Result Mating disruption of insect sex pheromone is a novel and green technology due to its high efficiency, specificity, environment-friendly and as an important part of Integrated Pest Management. And it has been widely used in Lepidoptera pests control, as well as Coleoptera, Homoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera. Controlling-release carrier and rates are the precondition of sex pheromone mating disruption technology, and the application mechanism was revealed. The economic and policy factor restricting the application of mating disruption is further clarified, so as to provide references for controlling insect pests with sex pheromone mating disruption in China. Conclusion Mating disruption of insect sex pheromone is playing an important role in the pest control, and has a broad prospect.
2018, 31(4): 183-191. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.04.025
[Abstract](3092) [FullText HTML] (1109) [PDF 1843KB](357) [Cited by] ()
Objective The objective of this paper is to analyze quantitatively the leaf predawn water potential change with the growth season and age along canopy height for moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) in natural and drought stress environment, and to clarify the seasonal differences of water supply for individuals of different ages of Ph. edulis, lay a theoretical basis for the sustainable and efficient management of Ph. edulis plantations in the global climate background. Method The throughfall exclusion was set to simulate the drought stress, and the PSYPRO water potential measurement system was used to quantitatively analyze the trend of leaf water potential change in the predawn with the growth season and bamboo age. Result (1) There was significant difference among different seasons for leaf predawn water potential for the same age of bamboo (P < 0.05), regardless of throughfall exclusion or not. (2) The leaf predawn water potential changing with the growth season showed a peak trend for the same age of bamboo, and was different due to bamboo age. Under natural growth environment (the control), the predawn water potential for 1-and 7-year-old bamboo changing with the seasonal showed a single peak with the highest value in September, and for 2-to 5-year-old individual it showed a bimodal change trend with the highest values in September and December respectively. The seasonal change trend of leaf predawn water potential was consistent with the soil moisture. After the throughfall exclusion, the leaf predawn water potential was "double peak" type for 1-and 2-year-old individual, and was "single peak" type for 3-to 5-year-old individual, which changed with the seasons. (3) The change with increasing age of bamboo for leaf predawn water potential under throughfall exclusion environment was similar to that of the control during different growth season. Regardless of throughfall exclusion or not, the leaf predawn water potential decreased with the increase of bamboo age during the rhizome vigorous growth season from August to October, and showed the trend of the water transport from young bamboos to old ones, while the leaf predawn water potential increased with the increase of bamboo age during the shoot development period from October to March the following year, and the water transported from the high water potential of old bamboo to low water potential of young ones, indicating that the water supply direction between different age of bamboo individuals changed in different season. (4) During the vigorous growth of rhizome, the leaf predawn water potential under throughfall exclusion was significantly lower than that under natural growth environment, and the difference in leaf predawn water potential became more significant with the increase of bamboo age. Under throughfall exclusion, only the leaf predawn water potential of the bamboo with the age over 5-years-old was lower than the control during the shoot development period. (5) There were no significant differences in predawn water potential of different canopy leaves in different growth seasons, but the change trend of leaf water potential was also affected by the bamboo age. Conclusion There was a significant seasonal difference of leaf predawn water potential for same aged individual. Both the leaf predawn water potential and the soil moisture follow same seasonal change trend. The transport direction of water between different age of bamboo individuals varied with season, indicating that the leaf predawn water potential is an important factor in driving the bamboo to adapt to drought stress.