2018 Vol. 31, No. 6
2018, 31(6): 0-0.
[Abstract](1496) [PDF 1785KB](364) [Cited by] ()
2018, 31(6): 0-0.
[Abstract](1444) [PDF 255KB](219) [Cited by] ()
2018, 31(6): 0-0.
[Abstract](1327) [PDF 511KB](281) [Cited by] ()
2018, 31(6): 1-6. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.001
[Abstract](2796) [FullText HTML] (1144) [PDF 1555KB](331) [Cited by] ()
Objective By evaluating the stands status characteristics to formulate the reasonable management measures for the typical forest types and lay a basis for upgrading and restoring forest ecosystem functions in the Xiaolongshan forest region. Method Ten stand status indexes and π-value rule were used to evaluate the stand status characters of 5 typical forest types in Xiaolongshan forest region, including the vertical structure, horizontal structure, age structure, tree species diversity, stand density and stand growth, and so on. Result The stand status of three forest types (Quercus and coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest in Baihuayinya, broad-leaved mixed forest in Wang'angou of Baihuaxianping and Pinus tabulaeformis natural forest in Longmenyaoba) was general status, their ω values were 0.478, 0.478 and 0.498, respectively; the stand status of Quercus broad-leaved mixed forest in Wang'angou of Baihuaxianping was in better status with ω value of 0.551; the stand status of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Maijidongshuigou was in a lower grade with the ω value of 0.235. Conclusion The π-value rule of forest status can quantitatively describe the typical forest types in the Xiaolongshan forest area. The evaluation results are in line with the actual conditions of the actual forest. Based on the results, the operational measures are provided to promote forest stability and quality.
Expression Correlation Between miRNA and mRNA From Needle Leaves of Pinus massoniana with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infestation
2018, 31(6): 7-14. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.002
[Abstract](2812) [FullText HTML] (968) [PDF 2702KB](387) [Cited by] ()
Objective MicroRNA (miRNA) has the function of silence target mRNA expression, which is considered as a negative role in the regulation of gene expression. This study aims to reveal the potential expression correlation between miRNA and mRNA from needle leaves of Pinus massoniana with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infestation, which helps to further indicate the mechanism of host plant in response to the pathogen infestation, and to obtain the particular miRNA and the target mRNA that involved in the regulation of masson pine resistance to pine wilt disease. Method Expression pools of miRNA and mRNA from P. massoniana with B. xylophilus infestation for 1, 2, and 3 d, which were generated using RNA-seq in our previous studies, were used as materials. The different expression profiles of miRNA or mRNA from P. massoniana with B. xylophilus infestation for different days were figured using STEM (Short Time-series Expression Miner) software, and method of Spearman Rank Correlation was employed to comparatively analyze the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of P. massoniana. Result Two significant expression profiles were generated from the miRNA pools of P. massoniana with B. xylophilus infestation for 1, 2, and 3 d, whilst 8 significant profiles were generated from that of mRNA pools. Fifteen miRNAs were considered as candidates that obviously represented correlation with twelve mRNAs from the expression pools. The reverse expression profiles between the mRNA and miRNA validate the bio-function of transcriptional silence from miRNA to the target mRNA. The miRNA-targeted mRNA encodes ACRE, CC-NBS-LRR resistance-like gene, etc. These genes play roles in plant pathogen recognition. Conclusion It was clear that the infestation of B. xylophilus resulted in various expression profiles of miRNA and mRNA from the P. massoniana, and numbers of miRNA presented a reverse expression pattern in comparison with target mRNA. Among these miRNAs, several of them were speculated that function in silenced expression of genes involved with pathogen recognition.
2018, 31(6): 15-25. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.003
[Abstract](3991) [FullText HTML] (2078) [PDF 3412KB](272) [Cited by] ()
Objective To research the CaM/CML gene family's characteristics in different tissues and symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi of Orchidaceae. Method Genome-wides of Phalaenopsis equestris and Dendrobium officinale were separately predicted and determined with bioinformatics methods based on the publishing protein sequences of CaM/CML gene family of Arabidopsis. The protein structures, phylogenetic trees, exon-intron structures of CaM/CML gene family in P. equestris and D. officinale were analyzed using different biological softwares. Gene expression analysis of different tissues (flower, leave, stem and root) in P. equestris and symbiotic with Tulasnella calospora and asymbiotic germination seeds from D. officinale were conducted by using RNA-seq data. Result Four CaMs and fifty-four CMLs were separately predicted from P. equestris and D. officinale genomes. In P. equestris, forty-one genes did not have intron, seventeen genes had intron in CaM/CML gene family; and thirty-nine genes did not have intron, nineteen genes had intron in D. officinale. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the CaMs and CMLs could be separately divided into ten subfamilies. The results of CaMs and CMLs genes expression analysis in different tissues of P. equestris indicated that nine genes were up-regulated in the leaf relative to the flower, stem and root, two genes were down-regulated; three genes were up-regulated in the flower relative to the leaf, stem and root; three genes were up-regulated in the flower and leaf relative to the stem and root. The results of gene expression analysis in symbiotic with T. calospora and asymbiotic germinated seeds from D. officinale by using RNA-seq data indicated that four genes were up-regulated, and four genes down-regulated. Conclusion These results will lay the basis for the further studying of potential biological function and molecular mechanism of CaMs and CMLs genes in orchid.
2018, 31(6): 26-32. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.004
[Abstract](2787) [FullText HTML] (1043) [PDF 924KB](315) [Cited by] ()
Objective To evaluate the genetic characteristics of open-pollinated families of Picea crassifolia in seed orchard in order to improve the elite breeding of P. crassifolia for afforestation. Method The genetic variation of height, stem increment, reserving rate at the thirteenth year and freezing injury rate at the eleventh year of open-pollinated P. crassifolia families were analyzed to select elite families using composite index selection method and select superior individuals using breeding value predicting by BLUP for providing high quality genetic breeding materials of P. crassifolia. Result The results showed that the phenotypic and genetic variation coefficient were 24.06%~84% and 3.28%-19.31% for height, stem increment, reserving rate at the thirteenth year and freezing injury rate at the eleventh year. The family and the interaction effects between family and block significantly affected the height, stem increment of thirteen-years-old P. crassifolia. The family heritabilities of height and stem increment were 42.5% and 34.2% respectively, while, their individual heritability were 3.00%. Their family heritability was higher than individual heritability in P. crassifolia families. 21 elite families were chosen based on diversity and genetic gain using comprehensive index selection method, the realized genetic gain of height, survival rate and freezing injury rate were 5.66%, 12.59% and 12.96%, respectively. According to breeding value, 111 superior individuals were selected from 1103 trees, the expected genetic gain was 20.10%. Conclusion The growth of P. crassifolia is controlled not only by genetic heritability, but also by the interaction effects between genetic heritability and environment. According to composition index of height and reserving rate at the thirteenth year and the freezing injury rate at the eleventh year, 21 elite families with good growth performance and strong resistance were chose by 35% selection rate, which may be used in reorganization and expansion of seed orchard in the first and 1.5 generation of P. crassifolia.
2018, 31(6): 33-38. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.005
[Abstract](2992) [FullText HTML] (1198) [PDF 1334KB](309) [Cited by] ()
Objective To reveal the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Dendrocalamus minor var. amoenus populations and provide useful information on effective utilization of germplasm resources and elite breeding. Method The genetic diversity and genetic distance of 48 D. minor var. amoenus individuals from 3 populations were analyzed by using 12 ISSR primers. Result A total of 124 loci were identified, of which 102 loci were polymorphism, accounting for 82.26%, Nei's ISSR diversities (He) at the species and population level were 0.220 4 and 0.206 6, respectively, the Shannon's information index (I) were 0.349 4 and 0.300 5, indicating that D. minor var. amoenus possessed medium level of genetic diversity. The variance within populations was the main part of the genetic variation according to Gst analysis. The level of gene flow (Nm) was calculated as 2.562 1 individuals per generation within the 3 populations, indicating that the majority of genetic variation occurred within populations. The UPGMA tree based on genetic distance (D) indicated that 48 individuals could be divided into 3 types and 3 populations could be clustered into 2 groups. The clustering in this dendrogram was not consistent with the geographical distribution, suggesting that there was no obvious correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance of populations. Conclusion Analysis of 3 populations based on the index of the Nei's genetic diversity showed that the genetic diversity of D. minor var. amoenus individuals is abundant though it is an asexual plant. The genetic diversity of species within populations is higher than that among populations. Fujian's population shows the highest level of genetic diversity and it should be a priority for protection.
2018, 31(6): 39-46. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.006
[Abstract](3359) [FullText HTML] (1441) [PDF 3292KB](292) [Cited by] ()
Objective To understand the basic features of EXP gene family and build a platform for further research on its function. Method The Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze 35 EXP gene family members of the genome-wide sequence in Eucalyptus grandis (EgrEXP1~EgrEXP35). Result The result indicated that E. grandis EXP genes located in 8 different chromosomes, and the subcellular localization were located on the cytoplasmic membrane. Most of the family members had a signal peptide. The proteins encoded by the E. grandis EXP genes were composed by alpha helix, extending chain, random coil and beta corner. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that E. grandis EXP protein shared close relationship with those in Populus trichocarpa. The 35 E. grandis EXP expression patterns were significantly different in the tissues including immature xylem, mature leaf, phloem, shoot tips, xylem and young leaf. Conclusion The EXP expression pattern of E. grandis was different among family members. It could be inferred that EgrEXP17 and EgrEXP18 may play an important role in the process of wood formation in E. grandis.
Effects of Drought Stress Simulated by PEG on Seed Germination and Growth Physiological Characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis
2018, 31(6): 47-54. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.007
[Abstract](3040) [FullText HTML] (1194) [PDF 1342KB](336) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the tolerance mechanism of Phyllostachys edulis to drought stress during seed germination by comparing the effects of different drought stress on seed germination, growth physiological characteristics of Ph. edulis so as to provide reference for Ph. edulis water management. Method The effects of different concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%)of PEG stress on seed germination, growth, organic osmoregulation substances were measured with choosing Ph. edulis seeds and using Petri dish and filter paper germination method. The regression analysis were done between growth of radicle and embryo, seed germination and PEG stress. Result (1) The control group (CK) and 5% test group began to germinate on the 4th day. The initiation time of the other test groups was gradually delayed with the increase of treatment concentration, and 25% of the test group did not germinate. (2) The final germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, vigor index, radicle length and embryonic bud length increased at first and then decreased with the increase of PEG-6000 concentration, and reached the maximum value at the concentration of 5%. There was a unique cross between the control group and the 5% test group in the diurnal variation curve of Ph. edulis germination rate under drought stress. The critical and the maximum value of the seed germination of Ph. edulis were 14.49% and 19.27% under the PEG stress. (3) The final length of radicle and embryo reached the maximum at 5% concentration, and then decreased with the increase of concentration, and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). There was a unique cross between the diurnal variation curve of the radicle length of the control group and the 5% test group. The critical and the maximum value of growth of radicle of Ph. edulis were 14.49% and 19.27% under the PEG stress. (4) The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in the radicle increased with the increase of PEG concentration. And reached a maximum at concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. (5) MDA and soluble protein content increased with the increase of PEG concentration, but the difference of MDA was not significant at low concentration (0%-10%). Conclusion Low concentration drought stress can inhibit the seed germination and radicle formation of Ph. edulis at the early stage of germination, but can significantly improve the final germination rate of Ph. edulis seed and promote the growth of radicle in the late period of germination. The high concentration of PEG drought stress will delay the germination of Ph. edulis and inhibit the germination rate and growth of the whole germination period. Drought stress above 15% could cause the antioxidant enzyme system of Ph. edulis to be disturbed and cause significant damage to cell membrane system.
2018, 31(6): 55-62. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.008
[Abstract](3056) [FullText HTML] (1129) [PDF 2102KB](271) [Cited by] ()
Objective To Study the impacts of the El Niño/La Niña events on the fire weather of Daxing'anling so as to improve the accuracy of fire danger forecasting. Method The values of fire weather index during 1951-2016 were calculated including the daily maximum temperature, the minimum relative humidity, the average wind speed, and the 24-hour precipitation collected by weather stations in the study area, and the differences of the weather and fire weather indices under four scenarios of the super strong and strong El Niño, moderate and weak El Niño, La Niña and normal years were analyzed respectively. Result Compared with the normal year, the average daily maximum temperature in the spring fire season in super strong and strong El Niño years decreased by 0.21℃, and precipitation increased by 6.78%. In spring fire season of La Niña years, the average daily maximum temperature was 0.44℃ higher, and the precipitation increased by 2.77mm. The daily maximum temperature of autumn fire season in El Niño/La Niña years was lower than that of the normal years. The average of fine fuel moisture code (FFMC), duff moisture code (DMC), drought code (DC), build up index (BUI) and fire weather index (FWI) in spring and autumn fire season under the situations of super strong and strong El Niño event were lower than those in normal years, and the FWI gradually decreased from southwest to Northeast. All six component fire weather indices of spring fire season in moderate and weak El Niño years were lower than those in normal years and also lower in autumn fire season except FFMC. In La Niña years, the FFMC, the initial spread index (ISI) and the FWI of spring fire season were lower than those of normal years, and all the indexes were lower than those in normal years as well, except for DC. Conclusion The forest fire weather index of super strong and strong El Nino in spring and autumn fire season was lower than that of the normal years in Daxing'anling, and the index of the western region was higher than that in the eastern region. In La Niña year, The FWI in spring fire season in the eastern region was lower than normal years and higher in the midwest. The FWI was higher than the normal years in northwest region and lower in southeastern in autumn fire season.
2018, 31(6): 63-68. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.009
[Abstract](2896) [FullText HTML] (1229) [PDF 1610KB](260) [Cited by] ()
Objective To investigate the effects of chilling on leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in mangrove Kandelia obovata seedlings, and the defense mechanism of K. obovata seedlings against chilling, so as to provide references for the breeding and introduction of the cold-resistant mangrove species. Method Under low-temperature stress at 5℃ and 12℃, the changes of leaf photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of K. obovata seedlings were measured using portable photosynthesis analyzer (Li-6400XT) and portable pulse modulated chlorophyll fluorescence instrument (PAM-2500), respectively. Data processing, mapping and statistical analysis were carried out using the software EXCEL and SPSS13.0. Result (1) The leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) of K. obovata seedlings were significantly affected by low temperature stress (P < 0.05). (2) At low temperature, the values of Pn, Gs and Ci decreased significantly, and the values of Pn and Gs showed a decreasing trend during 5 days of low temperature while the Ci showed a rising trend. Under the low-temperature stress at 5℃, the value of WUE was higher than CK at the first day, and then decreased to lower than CK. At 12℃, WUE was a little higher than CK during all the 5 days. (3) At 5℃, the variable fluorescence (Fv) and the maximum light energy conversion rate (Fv/Fm) were lower than CK, and showed a downward trend with the time duration of low temperature, and decreased significantly at low temperature at the fifth day (P < 0.05). At 12℃, the changes of Fv and Fv/Fm values were not significant. Conclusion K. obovata seedling can survive under low-temperature stress at 12℃, and the growth and biomass of K. obovata seedlings will decrease. At the low temperature of 5℃, the survival threshold of K. obovata seedlings is 2 days (48 h). Under low-temperature stress which does not damage the potential activities of leaf Photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) in K. obovata seedlings, the declining of Pn is mainly because of the restricted stomatal efficiency (WUE). During the process of photosynthesis, K. obovata seedlings will lower the declining of photosynthetic rate through increasing the leaf water use to improve its cold-resistance ability.
Morphological and Molecular Identification of Kallitaxila sinica (Walker, 1851), A New Pest of Chinese Tallow Tree
2018, 31(6): 69-75. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.010
[Abstract](3472) [FullText HTML] (1120) [PDF 2204KB](285) [Cited by] ()
Objective To identify the Kallitaxila sinica (Walker, 1851) (Hemiptera:Fulgoroidea:Tropiduchidae), a new insect pest of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) in Longli County, Guizhou, China, based on morphological and molecular data. Method The morphological characteristics of adult, egg and fifth instar nymph of K. sinica were described and illustrated respectively. The COI sequences of K. sinica were obtained by PCR, the sequence composition and genetic distances were analyzed and the phylogenetic tree of four tropiduchid species based on neighbor-joining methods were constructed by MEGA 6.0 software, Tambinia bambusana, T. rubrolineate and T. menglunensis were chosen as outgroups. Result The results show that COI sequences of ten sample of K. sinica are independent evolutionary branches. Intraspecific genetic distances of K. sinica is 0.000~0.065, and interspecific genetic distances of four tropiduchid species is 0.142~0.202; there is no overlapping in genetic distances between intraspecific and interspecific. Conclusion COI gene fragment as DNA barcode, can be used to molecular identification of K. sinica. Damage symptoms and occurrence regularity of K. sinica were also introduced in this paper.
Optimum Sterilization Conditions and Germination Characteristics of Dendrocalamus brandisii and D. membranaceus Seeds
2018, 31(6): 76-82. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.011
[Abstract](2427) [FullText HTML] (993) [PDF 1320KB](239) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the best surface sterilization conditions and germination characteristics of Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz and D. membranaceus Munro seed. Method NaClO (1%, 2%, 3%) and HgCl2 (0.01%, 0.1%) were used to sterilize the seeds of the two species so as to find out the most suitable combination of disinfectant conditions. Three factors, namely the water flushing time (6, 12, 18 h), 2% NaClO soaking time (5, 10, 15 min) and 0.1% HgCl2 soaking time (5, 10, 15 min), were used to design the experiments by the L9 (34) orthogonal table for selecting the best treatment combination. The seed germination rates using filter medium, MS medium and MS medium after soaked in 3 mg·L-1 GA3 were investigated respectively. Result The optimum combination of disinfectant conditions was 2% NaClO+0.1% HgCl2. The best sterilization treatment combination for these two bamboos seeds were:6 h water flushing time, 10 min 2% NaClO soaking time and 15 min 0.1% HgCl2 soaking time. After treated, the germination rates of D. brandisii and D. membranaceus seeds were 84.4% and 72.2% respectively, and the pollution rate of the seeds were 18.7% and 29.6% respectively. The results of t test showed that no significant difference was found in germination rate of D. brandisii seeds between on MS medium and on MS medium after seeds soaked in 3 mg·L-1 GA3, the germination rate reached 85.6% and 84.4%, respectively. However, the seed germination rate on two MS mediums were significantly higher than that on filter paper (71.1%). The seed germination rate of D. membranaceus was lower than that of D. brandisii, and also displayed similar germination rule for three mediums. Conclusion The best sterilization treatment combination for D. brandisii and D. membranaceus seeds are:6 h water flushing time, 10 min 2% NaClO soaking time and 15 min 0.1% HgCl2 soaking time. There is no significant difference in germination rate of D. brandisii and D. membranaceus seeds between on MS medium and on MS medium after seeds soaked in 3 mg·L-1 GA3. However, the seed germination rate on two MS mediums were significantly higher than that on filter paper.
2018, 31(6): 83-88. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.012
[Abstract](2402) [FullText HTML] (976) [PDF 913KB](233) [Cited by] ()
Objective To identify and analyze the main chemical components, their contents and change in the flowers and leaves of Camellia nitidissima, and to provide the basis for further exploitation and utilization of C. nitidissima. Method The components and contents of anthocyanins, flavonoids and catechins in the flowers and leaves of C. nitidissima were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. Result Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and pelargonium-3-O-glucoside were identified in C. nitidissima for the first time, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was only found in the new purple leaves. Luteolin-7-O-rutinoside and genistin were identified in C. nitidissima for the first time, and the quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside were found in leaves of C. nitidissima for the first time. The contents of anthocyanins between petals and stamens had no obvious difference, but were lower than that in leaves, especially new leaves. Instead, the contents of catechins in flowers were well higher than that in leaves, especially new leaves. The contents of total flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside between petals and stamens had no obvious differences, but were far higher than that in leaves. The contents of total flavonoids and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside which was the main flavonoids in new leaves were significantly higher than that in old leaves. Conclusion Two anthocyanins, six flavonoids and two catechins are identified in C. nitidissima. The quercetin-3-O-glucoside and other flavonoids are the main cause of the yellow color of flowers, and the cyanidin-3-o-glucoside is the main cause of the purple color of new leaves of C. nitidissima.
2018, 31(6): 89-97. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.013
[Abstract](2610) [FullText HTML] (1111) [PDF 2068KB](297) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the effect of plant growth inhibitors on growth, leaf morphology and photosynthesis of Euonymus japonicus, and provide technical guidance for the chemical pruning shrubs. Method One-year-old E. japonicus cutting stocks planted into hedge were treated with 3 kinds of growth inhibitors, Paclobutrazol (PP333), triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and abscisic acid (ABA) by foliar spraying in the nursery of Beijing Forestry University. Then the growth, leaf morphology and photosynthesis were measured. Result These 3 kinds of chemicals can inhibit both plant height growth and shoot growth, and PP333 performed the best. The time of inhibitory effect of high concentration PP333 lasted longer. The leaf area, leaf width and leaf thickness were higher than the control with PP333 in the short term. PP333 increased photosynthetic rate by increasing leaf thickness, stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance and chlorophyll content and it reduced water use efficiency by increasing the transpiration rate. The leaf length and leaf thickness significantly reduced, but the leaf thickness increased with TIBA concentration increasing. Photosynthetic rate reduced in TIBA mainly due to reduced leaf area, mesophyll conductance, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content. The Leaf area (except 10 mg·L-1 ABA) and leaf length increased, but the leaf thickness reduced with ABA. ABA can reduce photosynthetic rate mainly by reducing the mesophyll conductance, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content. TIBA and ABA increased water use efficiency by reducing the transpiration rate. Conclusion All the 3 kinds of chemicals can inhibit both plant height growth and shoot growth, and affect leaf development, and then affect leaf photosynthesis. PP333 with a concentration of 800 mg·L-1 performs the best.
Contact Lethal Activity of Four Environmental Friendly Pesticides to Rhagoletis batava obseuriosa Diptera: Tephritidae) Adults, A Serious Fruit Fly of Seabuckthorn
2018, 31(6): 98-104. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.014
[Abstract](3238) [FullText HTML] (1251) [PDF 1211KB](246) [Cited by] ()
Objective Rhagoletis batava obseuriosa (RBO) has caused serious damage to Hippophae rhamnoides fruit in Dengkou County, Inner Mongolia, China. This study aims at Selecting high efficiency, low residue and easy degradable environmental friendly pesticides to prevent and control RBO. Method The pupae of RBO were collected at sea-buckthorn orchard in Dengkou County in April, 2017. After the emergence of adults in the laboratory, the female and male adults were separately bioassayed with different concentrations of four pesticides to evaluate the contact lethal effects of the four pesticides by dish tests. Result The results of KT50 (median knockdown time) data analysis showed that the male's contact toxicity of four pesticides was a little higher than that of female. When the concentration of matrine was 0.005 mg·mL-1, the male's KT50 value was 39.21 h, less than the female's KT50 value of 56.13 h, but there was some exceptions, for example, when the concentration of matrine was 0.05 mg·mL-1, the male's KT50 value (15.76 h) was higher than the female's KT50 value of 12.39 h. The results of LC50 (median lethal dose) analysis showed that the contact toxicity of four pesticides to RRO was different. When the adults were treated with 12 hours, LC50 of the four different pesticides were azadirachtin 7.737 mg·mL-1, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.002 mg·mL-1, matrine 0.042 mg·mL-1 and avermectins 0.008 mg·mL-1, respectively. The lethal effect of the four pesticides from high to low were lambda-cyhalothrin, avermectins, matrine and azadirachtin; when the adults were treated with 24 hours, LC50 of four pesticides were azadirachtin 6.963 mg·mL-1, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.001 mg·mL-1, matrine 0.008 mg·mL-1 and avermectins 0 mg·mL-1, respectively. The lethal effects from high to low were avermectins, lambda-cyhalothrin, matrine and azadirachtin; when adults were treated with 48 hours:LC50 of four pesticides were azadirachtin 0.891 mg·mL-1, lambda-cyhalothrin 0 mg·mL-1, matrine 0.002 mg·mL-1 and avermectins 0 mg·mL-1, respectively. The lethal effects of the four pesticides from high to low were avermectins, lambda-cyhalothrin, matrine and azadirachtin. Conclusion Avermectins and lambda-cyhalothrin have high contact lethal effect to RBO adults, followed by matrine. Azadirachtin shows no effective contact lethal ability to RBO adults. More bioassay need to be carried to check their control effect on RBO in the field.
2018, 31(6): 105-113. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.015
[Abstract](2306) [FullText HTML] (1036) [PDF 959KB](310) [Cited by] ()
Objective The purpose of this study is to develop integrated individual tree biomass equation systems, in which above-ground biomass is compatible with below-ground biomass and stem volume, and stem, bark, branches and foliage biomass are additive to above-ground biomass, for providing a quantitative basis on accurate estimation of forest biomass. Method Based on the mensuration data of above-and below-ground biomass from 230 and 78 destructive sample trees of Picea spp. in Xinjiang, respectively, one-and two-variable integrated biomass systems with compatibility and additivity, including above-and below-ground biomass, component biomass, and stem volume, were developed using error-in-variable simultaneous equations approach and dummy variable modeling approach, and the impact of region on estimation of biomass and volume was analyzed. Result The mean prediction errors (mPEs) of above-ground biomass equations in the developed one-and two-variable integrated biomass systems for Picea spp. in Xinjiang were less than 7%, the mPEs of components biomass equations were about 10%, and the mPEs of below-ground biomass equations were less than 15%, which could meet the need of precision requirements from relevant regulation. One-variable equations were better than two-variable equations for estimation of biomass except for stem and bark biomass. Both proportion control and algebraic control methods could ensure the compatibility between above-ground biomass and component biomass, and the difference between estimates of models from the two methods was not significant. Conclusion Integrating dummy variable into error-in-variable simultaneous equations is a practical approach, which can simultaneously develop a system even though the numbers of above-and below-ground biomass observations are very different, and ensure not only the compatibility between above-and below-ground biomass and stem volume, but also the additivity between above-ground biomass and component biomass. For estimation of above-and below-ground biomass, and stem volume, the dummy variable models are better than population average models.
Effect of Cutting on Spatial Heterogeneity of Standing Crop and Water Content in Semi-decomposition Litter Layer and Canopy Density in Natural Spruce-fir Mixed Forest
2018, 31(6): 114-120. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.016
[Abstract](2789) [FullText HTML] (926) [PDF 1422KB](267) [Cited by] ()
Objective Four 1-hectare plots of natural mixed spruce-fir coniferous and broadleaf forests located in Jin'gouling Forest Farm of Jilin Province were investigated to explore the spatial heterogeneity of standing crop and water content in semi-decomposition litter layer and forest canopy density under different cutting intensities[21.21% of volume removed (heavy cutting), 11.22% (medium cutting), 6.29% (light cutting) and the control (no thinning)]. Method An ordinary Kriging interpolation was performed on the data of the standing crop and water content in semi-decomposition litter layer and forest canopy density, and then their spatial distribution pattern was obtained using geostatistical methods. Result At the scale of 10[XC~.TIF]100 m, cutting resulted in the standing crop of litter from a discrete distribution to aggregated distribution but with little effect on the spatial heterogeneity of water content. The canopy density of all plots showed an aggregated distribution and cutting affected the spatial heterogeneity of medium and heavy cutting plots to some extent. There was no correlation between the standing crop and canopy density. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the standing crop and water content in the control and the moderate cutting stands, but to a lesser degree (r < 0.3). Conclusion Cutting has little effect on the spatial heterogeneity of water content in semi-decomposition litter layer. The heterogeneity of forest canopy density in the plots under medium cutting and heavy cutting may result from uneven cutting. Cutting reduces the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the standing crop of the semi-decomposition layer.
Genetic Parameters for Wood Properties in a Reciprocal Factorial Mating Design between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. camaldulensis
2018, 31(6): 121-129. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.017
[Abstract](2808) [FullText HTML] (1032) [PDF 888KB](279) [Cited by] ()
Objective To estimate the genetic parameters for wood properties of Eucalyptus urophylla (U) and E. camaldulensis (C) F1 hybrids and provide a theoretical basis for the selection of parental genotypes and mating design for the improvement on wood properties of eucalypts. Method A trial involving 36 reciprocal crosses from six C parents and six U parents preselected for superior growth and stem straightness was built. Ten open-pollinated (OP) half-sib families using the hybrid parents as females were included as the controls. The wood basic density (BD), fibre length (FL), fibre width (FW) and FL/FW at age 9 were assessed with 2 average stand trees from every 5 tree plot, 984 wood cores were drilled for 82 combinations with 6 repeatations, at the height of 1.3 meters along the north to south. Specific combining ability, heterosis, single tree's narrow-sense heritability (h2) for female and male, genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficient were estimated for four wood property traits by ASReml-R. Result Inter-specific hybrids generally performed better than the OP progenies in terms of BD, which showed a significant heterosis. Female C by male U crosses (C×U) generally outperformed those involving female U by male C (U×C) in terms of BD, whilst, U×C crosses generally outperformed those C×U in terms of FL, FW and FL/FW. The maternal effects of wood basic density, fibre length and FL/FW were lower than paternal effects in U×C crosses, whilst the maternal effects of four wood properties were higher than paternal effects in C×U crosses. The h2 estimates based on general hybridizing ability for BD and fibre traits were generally middle to low. Except for FL/FW, the dominance variance of all the other three wood properties were larger than additive variance. The ratio of hybrid dominance to additive variance (σD2/σA2) were larger than 1 for BD, FL and FW. The trait-trait genetic correlations amongst hybrids were significant and negative between BD and FW, significant and positive between BD and FL/FW, whilst, not significant and negative between BD and FL, and significant and positive between FL and FW. However, The trait-trait phenotypic correlations between wood properties were significant and positive except that between FW and FL/FW. Conclusion Genetic parameters of U and C hybrids in terms of wood properties are different from parental genotypes and mating direction, and inter-specific hybrid breeding and forward reciprocal selection is feasible for the improvement of wood properties.
2018, 31(6): 130-137. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.018
[Abstract](2423) [FullText HTML] (1028) [PDF 2613KB](290) [Cited by] ()
[Objective] To compare the differences of photosynthetic and physiological parameters among crown layers and orientations, and then study the effects of crown layers and orientations on photosynthetic characteristics in Larix kaempferi, and to provide a sound theoretical foundation for developing canopy productivity model and accurately evaluating canopy productivity. [Method] 7-year-old and 19-year-old Larix kaempferi were selected for researching gas exchange. The canopies of Larix kaempferi were divided into 3 layers equally and each layer was divided further into 4 orientations-east, west, south and north. The photosynthetic and physiological parameters, including light response curve, CO2 response curve and photosynthetic pigment content, were measured on the needles in different canopy layers and orientations. Then the data were analyzed according to crownlayer. [Results] Vertically, all photosynthetic parameters showed significant differences among canopies except apparent quantum yield in the sampled trees. The maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point, light compensation point and dark respiration rate increased with raising crown in both stand ages of L. kaempferi. The maximum carboxylation rate, maximum electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization and carboxylation efficiency in lower crown were lowest in all measured trees, while the maximum values of CO2 compensation point existed in lower crown. There were significant differences exist in all photosynthetic pigments of different canopies in the selected trees. The Chla, Chlb and Car increased with declining crown in both stand ages. Horizontally, Orientation had no significant effect on photosynthetic and physiological parameters for the sampled trees. The mean values of photosynthetic parameters in the south and east represented photosynthetic characteristics of the whole crown of 7-and 19-year-old trees, respectively. There were no significant differences in photosynthetic and physiological parameters between 7-year-old and 19-year-old L. kaempferi. [Conclusion] There are considerable spatial heterogeneity of photosynthetic and physiological parameters in L. kaempferi crown, and most of these parameters are affected significantly by crown layer, but not by orientation.
The Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on the Physiological Characteristics of Ulmus pumila Plantlet under NaCl Stress
2018, 31(6): 138-143. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.019
[Abstract](2522) [FullText HTML] (840) [PDF 1856KB](296) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the effect of spraying Salicylic acid (SA) with different concentration on the physiological metabolism of Ulmus pumila tissue-cultured plantlets under salt stress. Method One-year-old U. pumila "Baiwa NO.1" plantlets were selected as materials and the effect of spraying different concentrations of SA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L-1) on the water physiology, membrane lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic gas exchange parameters were studied under 0, 50, 100 and 150 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatments. Result (1) Exogenous SA improved the relative water content and soluble sugar content in leaves significantly, and decreased the MDA content, but it had no significant effects on the electrolyte leakage. (2) 0.5 and 2.0 mmol·L-1 SA improved the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid and chlorophyll a+b contents in the leaves of U. pumila under 50 and 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl stress. And the effect of 1.0 mmol·L-1 SA on the chlorophyll content under each NaCl concentration was not significant. (3) The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) increased significantly with the addition of 2.0 mmol·L-1 SA under NaCl stress. The addition of 1.0 mmol·L-1 SA decreased Pn and Gs significantly under each NaCl concentration. Conclusion Appropriate SA concentration can alleviate the physiological parameters of U. pumila under salt stress. The results of comprehensive evaluation using the subordinate function method show that 0.5 and 2.0 mmol·L-1 are the optimal concentration of SA.
Response of Seedlings of Three Schima superba Provenances to Different Light Environments When Mixed Planting with Cunninghamia lanceolata
2018, 31(6): 144-153. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.020
[Abstract](2290) [FullText HTML] (791) [PDF 4332KB](300) [Cited by] ()
Objective To explore the photosynthetic mechanism for productivity of Schima superba mixed planting. Method This study took one year and two years old seedlings of three S. superba provenances coming from Jian'ou of Fujian Province, Xinfeng of Jiangxi Province and Longquan of Zhejiang Province, which were mix-planted with Cunninghamia lanceolata, as the subjects. The response and laws of growth traits, photosynthetic physiology and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the seedlings to light circumstances set as 100% (L0), 50% (L1) and 25% (L2) of light transmittance were studied. Result The results showed that the dry matter quality for one year and two years old S. superba seedlings was apparently different with varied light environments. The seedlings of Longquan provenance were superior than that of Xinfeng provenance, which may be related to the strong ability of searching light. During two development stages, the leaf area and chlorophyll content of the seedlings of Jian'ou provenance significantly increased after shading, while the chlorophyll a/b value, the light saturation point, the dark respiration rate and the minimal fluorescence (Fo) value dramatically decreased, indicating that by increasing the leaf area and the chlorophyll content, the seedlings of Jian'ou provenance changed the chlorophyll composition and photosynthetic physiological characteristics, and enhanced the ability of low light capture and transformation, which also showing higher morphology and physiological plasticity. The total leaf area, chlorophyll content and variable fluorescence/maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) index of Jian'ou provenance were significantly higher than those in Longquan provenance and Xinfeng provenance under same condition, but the chlorophyll a/b value, light saturation point, light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower than that of the latter two provenances, which indicated that S. superba of Jian'ou provenance was more shade tolerance, and could be adapted to a wider range of light. Unlike Longquan provenance and Xinfeng provenances, the root-shoot ratio of 2-year-old seedlings of Jian'ou provenance increased significantly after one year's shading, might mean that long-term shading and mixed planting could also be distributed by high biomass redistribution ability. And, increasing distribution of root biomass could enhance the competition with neighbors and promote the accumulation of biomass of the whole seedling at last. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were obviously higher for 2 years seedlings than that of 1 year under different light conditions, While, the differences between light treatments were not significant. Conclusion The productivity of S. superba mixed with C. lanceolata is related to the plasticity to different light environment, and varies with seedling age changing.
Flower Bud Anatomical Characteristics and Carbon and Nitrogen Nutrition Changes of Litsea cubeba in Female Flower Bud Differentiation
2018, 31(6): 154-160. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.021
[Abstract](3133) [FullText HTML] (1216) [PDF 2228KB](204) [Cited by] ()
Objective To understand and grasp flower bud anatomical characteristics and carbon and nitrogen nutrition of Litsea cubeba in female flower bud differentiation, and provide reference for artificial cultivation and cross breeding of Litsea cubeba. Method The histological anatomy of the female flower bud differentiation of L. cubeba was observed by paraffin section method. The carbon and nitrogen nutrition indexes of soluble sugar, starch, soluble protein and carbon nitrogen ratio were determined by physiological kit and spectrophotometry. Result (1) The differentiation of the female flower bud in L. cubeba followed five stages:undifferentiation, inflorescence primordium differentiation, bract primordium differentiation, flower primordium differentiation and floral organ differentiation. (2) The soluble sugar content of leaves increased with the development of the female flower bud differentiation, and the highest value was 65.07 mg·g-1. The starch content of leaves increased at first and then decreased with the development of the female flower bud differentiation, and the highest value appeared in the stage of bract primordium differentiation, which reached 81.30 mg·g-1, and the lowest value appeared in floral organ differentiation stage, which was 52.19 mg·g-1. (3) The content of soluble protein in leaves decreased continuously from 61.32 mg·g-1 to 52.48 mg·g-1 in the first three stages, and then remained stable. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in leaves increased continuously from 1.49 to 2.61 in the first three stages, and then remained stable in the high level. Conclusion The internal anatomical characteristics of the female flower bud differentiation of L. cubeba are similar to those of the male flower bud differentiation, and the female flower bud differentiation is divided into five periods. More and more soluble sugars are accumulated in leaves in the process of the female flower differentiation, and soluble proteins decreases obviously, while the ratio of carbon to nitrogen increases and remains at a relatively high level.
Optimization of Extraction Process and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.)
2018, 31(6): 161-167. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.022
[Abstract](2451) [FullText HTML] (1238) [PDF 2196KB](247) [Cited by] ()
Objective The leaves of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) contain polyphenols and flavonoids. Polyphenols and flavonoids are scavengers of free radicals in organisms, preventing the toxic effects of free radicals on the body and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, i.e. antioxidant activity. Therefore, understanding of polyphenols extraction form leaves and its antioxidant activity in vitro could provide theoretical basis of utilization of leaves of D. sissoo. Method Ethanol was used as the extract of polyphenols in leaves of D. sissoo, and then single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were used to determine the extraction process of polyphenols. At the same time, the removal capacity of DPPH-free radical of ethanol-water extract of leaves of D. sissoo was identified. Result Low-concentration of polyphenol solution of leaves of D. sissoo had strong antioxidant activity. The concentration of polyphenol solution for inhibitory half number of DPPH free radical (IC50) was about 3.2 mg·L-1, much higher than concentration 2.5 mg·L-1 of Vc, but its reducing ability was slightly lower than the Vc. Conclusion Leaves of D. sissoo are rich in polyphenols and have strong antioxidant activity, which can be used as natural antioxidant plant resources for development and utilization.
The Stoichiometric Characteristics of C, N and P in Leaf-litter-soil of Different Aged Eucalyptus urophylla×E. grandis Plantations
2018, 31(6): 168-174. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.023
[Abstract](2512) [FullText HTML] (904) [PDF 861KB](304) [Cited by] ()
Objective To understand the distribution pattern of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and the stoichiometric characteristics of Eucalyptus urophylla×E. grandis fast-growing plantation ecosystem in the Leizhou Peninsula. Method The temporal-spatial method was used to select four E. urophylla×E. grandis fast-growing plantations with different ages (1, 3, 5, 7a) as the subjects. The contents of C, N, P and their ratio were analyzed in the leaf, litter, and soil. Result The results revealed that the C and N contents followed the pattern of leaf > litter > soil, the content of P followed the pattern of leaf > soil > litter and there was an obvious difference among the three warehouses. Soil C content could increase with the raising of plantation age; but N and P differed little. The ratio of soil C:N increased with rising age, indicating that soil decomposition rate declined gradually. The ratio of litter C:N varied in the range of 54.07-92.18 (>25), increased at first and then declined. It showed that litter decomposition rate was comparatively low and restricted by N. The ratio of N:P in leaf was between 10.8 and 12.98 which also demonstrated that plant growth was limited by N. The correlation analysis showed that the litter N content was limited by the leaf, and the soil N was limited by the litter. Inside the ecosystem, the C, N and P elements had realized the transportation and transformation among the plants, litter and soil. Conclusion The decomposition rate of soil organic matter and litter of young and middle aged E. urophylla×E. grandis plantations on the Leizhou Peninsula is comparatively slow. The soil organic matter and litter decomposition rate decline with age and is restricted by N. The growth of plantation is also limited by N.
2018, 31(6): 175-184. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.06.024
[Abstract](2816) [FullText HTML] (1090) [PDF 1179KB](353) [Cited by] ()
Objective To explore the soil quality under the four forest types (Larix kaempferi, Quercus mongolica+Larix kaempferi, Pinus densiflora, and Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Kunyushan National Nature Reserve. Method Using the method of soil sampling combined with laboratory analysis, the physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities in different soil profiles under these forests were analyzed. The comprehensive analysis and evaluation of soil quality under different forest types were conducted by integrated soil quality index and principal component analysis. Result The soil density of different forests increased with the increase of soil depth, and the total porosity decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The capillary porosity of L. kaempferi and P. densiflora were significantly reduced with the increase of soil depth, while the Q. mongolica+L. kaempferi and C. lanceolata were the opposite. The soil pH ranged from 4.13 to 5.07. The contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available potassium generally decreased with the increasing of soil depth, reflecting the surface aggregation characteristic of soil nutrient. On the whole, the soil total potassium content had no significant differences in different soil layers under four forest types (P < 0.05), the soil total potassium content in 20-40 cm and 40~60 cm layers of L. kaempferi were significantly higher than that of other forests. In addition to C. lanceolata, the soil available phosphorus content increased as soil depth increased. Except for soil invertase, the activity of other three soil enzyme decreased with the increase of soil depth. The soil quality index of these forests showed an order of L. kaempferi(0.792)> Q. mongolica+L. kaempferi (0.639) > C. lanceolata (0.353) > P. densiflora (0.267). Conclusion Forest type has a significant impact on the physical and chemical properties at different levels of the soil layers. The soil quality status of different forest types is different, among them, the soil quality of L. kaempferi forest is the best, and the soil quality of P. densiflora forest is the worst.