2020 Vol. 33, No. 1
[Abstract](1073) [FullText HTML] (680) [PDF 1828KB](26) [Cited by] ()
[Abstract](1043) [FullText HTML] (725) [PDF 332KB](18) [Cited by] ()
2020, 33(1): 1-1.
[Abstract](1858) [FullText HTML] (1220) [PDF 164KB](25) [Cited by] ()
2020, 33(1): 1-10. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.001
[Abstract](3942) [FullText HTML] (1730) [PDF 930KB](102) [Cited by] ()
Objective To find the salinity tolerance genes of Nitraria billardieri, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under salt stress were selected and analyzed . Method The seedlings of N. billardieri were subjected to salt stress treatments with 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl for 7 days. High-throughput RNA-seq technology was used to generate the transcriptome of salt-treated leaves and the control, and the related bioinformatics analysis was performed. Result A total of 168 463 unigenes and 196 DEGs responding to salt stress were obtained with clean reads assembled. 64 subclasses and 25 KEGG pathways were enriched in the GO and KEGG annotation, respectively. Further gene interaction network analysis revealed that the genes related to transcriptional regulation, redox and stress tolerance play important roles in the response to salt stress of N. billardieri. Three key node genes were screened out: heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein gene, L-type lectin-domain containing receptor kinase IV.1 gene and Win-like protein gene. Conclusion In this study, the DEGs of N . billardieri under salt stress and the functional annotations were obtained. It will be helpful to understand the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance of N. billardieri. It also provide scientific basis for the subsequent development of salt-tolerance molecular markers and the improvement of salt-tolerance characteristics in plants through gene editing.
Deep U-net Optimization Method for Forest Type Classification with High Resolution Multispectral Remote Sensing Images
2020, 33(1): 11-18. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.002
[Abstract](5208) [FullText HTML] (2910) [PDF 1231KB](156) [Cited by] ()
Objective Full convolution neural network U-net can effectively improve the effect of remote sensing target recognition and object classification. Method The test site is located in Wangyedian Forest Farm, Chifeng district, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The GF-2 multispectral data, ZY-3 DOM data, ZY-3 DEM data, subcompartment data and field survey data were employed as the key data sources. Based on the U-net network model and the optimization ideas of the previous FCN-8s model, the standard Normalize Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) was added to the original band in the training process, and the CRF post-processing process was added to construct the network and the final classification results were obtained. Result (1) The overall classification accuracy of the optimized U-net model was 84.89%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.82, which was higher than that of the U-net model without NDVI feature and U-net model without CRF post-processing; (2) Compared with the classification results of FCN-8s, SVM and RF using the same strategy, the classification accuracy of the optimized U-net model was greatly improved. Conclusion The classification effect of U-net model can be improved by adjusting the relevant remote sensing features and using CRF post-processing method. This method is suitable for the classification of high resolution multispectral remote sensing images of forest types.
Effect of Forest Fire Disturbance on Biological Carbon Density of Two Typical Coniferous Forests in Guangdong Province, China
2020, 33(1): 19-27. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.003
[Abstract](3403) [FullText HTML] (1791) [PDF 3850KB](84) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the variation law of forest fire disturbance to forest biological carbon pool, and to reveal the mechanism of forest fire disturbance on forest biological carbon density, so as to provide references for the management of carbon sink in forest ecosystems after fire disturbance. Method Taking 2 typical subtropical coniferous forests in Guangdong province as the research object, the effects of different forest fire intensity on carbon density and carbon distribution of forest biological carbon pool (vegetation carbon pool and litterfall carbon pool) were measured quantitatively at the level of forest ecosystem by using the method of adjacent plots comparison with the analysis of field investigation sampling and laboratory test as the main means. Result The results showed that forest fire disturbance had an effect on the carbon density of vegetation and litterfall in the 2 coniferous forests, and can be ranked according to the severity degree as control > light forest fire disturbance > moderate forest fire disturbance > high forest fire disturbance. There was no significant difference in the effect of light forest fire disturbance on the carbon density of vegetation (P >0.05), while moderate and high forest fire disturbance significantly reduced the carbon density of vegetation (P <0.05). Under same forest fire intensity, the tree showed the largest change in carbon density of vegetation components. Under different forest fire intensity, the carbon density change of trees followed the order of control > light forest fire interference > moderate forest fire disturbance > high forest fire disturbance, while the change of carbon density of herbs showed a trend opposite to carbon density of trees. The intensity of forest fire disturbance significantly affected the carbon density of trees and herbs, and also had an effect on the carbon density of shrubs. The effects of different forest fire intensity on the carbon density of litterfall varied, but the carbon density of litterfall was significantly reduced by various forest fire intensity (P <0.05), and the extent increased with the increase of forest fire intensity. Conclusion Forest fire disturbance reduces the carbon density of vegetation and litterfall, which in turn has an important effect on the carbon density of forest ecosystem.
2020, 33(1): 28-34. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.004
[Abstract](3902) [FullText HTML] (2347) [PDF 1086KB](55) [Cited by] ()
Objective The morphological structure and embryonic development of Bambusa rigida flower organs were studied, in order to provide data for the bamboo embryology and lay a foundation for breeding. Method The structure of reproductive organs, megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis and the development of male and female gametophyte of Bambusa rigida were invesgated using anatomical method and morphological observation. Result The spikelet of B. rigida was cluster pseudospikelets, with latent bud at the base and a mean length of 3.75 cm, and each spikelet contained 3－7 florets. Each floret contained 1 lemma and 1 palea, 3 lodicules, 1 pistil and 6 stamens. The stigma of pistils had three feather-like stigmas. The ovary was long ellipse with an apparently trigonous appearence. The ovary was unilocular, lateral membranous placenta and with an anatropous ovule. The normally developed pollen grains were 2-celled pollen, the sporogenous cells of anther wall were 4-celled, and there were only 2-celled pollen walls when anther matured. The tapetum was secretory and degenerates completely when the anthers were matured. Anthers were prone to abnormal development, forming different types of abortion. Conclusion The anatomical structure of B. rigida spikelets is normal, but the abortion phenomenon was observed in a great number of pollens. This is the main reason for the low seed setting percentage of B. rigida.
Long-term Effects of Site and Density on Timber Assortment Structure of Chinese Fir Plantations in South Subtropical Area, China
2020, 33(1): 35-43. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.005
[Abstract](2583) [FullText HTML] (1316) [PDF 1419KB](66) [Cited by] ()
Objective To reveal the long-term effects of site and planting density on stand timber assortment structure of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in south subtropical area, China. Method Based on positioning observation data of 36-years-old Chinese fir plantations at four site index classes in Daqingshan, Guangxi, including five planting densities of A (1 667 trees·hm−2), B (3 333 trees·hm−2), C (5 000 trees·hm−2), D (6 667 trees·hm−2), and E (10 000 trees·hm−2), the dynamic changes of stand timber assortment structure were analyzed. Result The number of trees and volume proportions of small diameter wood (SW) increased with age at the beginning, and decreased with age after the peak points. The lower the planting density and the higher the site index were, the faster the decline became. The number of trees and volume proportions of medium and large diameter wood increased with age. The lower the planting density and the higher the site index were, the faster the proportions increased. The volume proportion of stand medium diameter wood (MW) at density D or below and 18-site-index class was about 50% at the age of 28. The volume proportion of stand large diameter timber (LT) at density A and 18-site-index class was about 50% at the age of 36. At 16-site-index class, the ratio of stand MW volume at middle and low planting density was over 45%, and the ratio of density C stand was about 48% which was the highest, and the volume proportion of LT at density A stand was over 26% at the age of 36. At 14-site-index class, the volume proportion of MW at density A stand was 44% at the age of 24, the volume proportion of SW of density A, B, and D was 83%, 76% and 69% at the age of 12, 18 and 24, respectively. At 10-site-index class, the volume proportion of SW at density C and E stand was 71% and 61% at the age of 36, respectively. Conclusion The timber assortment formation of Chinese fir plantation is closely related to site, density and age, the site quality plays a decisive role, while the planting density can also be a key limiting factor in cultivating high specification timber assortments. Lower initial planting density and higher site index are more conducive to the formation of MW and LT. In south subtropical area of China, the site of 10-index-class is to be fit only for cultivating SW and small bar timber. The site of 14-index-class is suitable for cultivating MW and SW. If MW is taken as the first target, the planting density should be low. The site of 16-index-class is suitable for cultivating MW, LT can also be cultivated if the period is long enough, but the planting density should not exceed 1667 trees per hectare. The site of 18-index-class has great production potential of MW, cultivating LT is a better choice, but the planting density should be controlled at density A, rotation period should not be less than 36 years.
Studies on Soil Fungal Community Composition and Function Characteristics of Different Plantations of Sandy Area, Northwest Liaoning Province
2020, 33(1): 44-54. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.006
[Abstract](2969) [FullText HTML] (1954) [PDF 1228KB](71) [Cited by] ()
Objective To reveal the response characteristics and mechanism of soil fungal community structure and function to different plantations, and to evaluate the impact of different plantations on the underground ecosystem. Method Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation, Pinus tabuliformis plantation, and Populus × canadensis plantation in the north wind sand area of western Liaoning province were investigated. For each sampling plot, the "S" type spot sampling method was used to collect the surface soil of 0 ~ 10 cm at multiple points.Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technology and FUNGuild software were applied to obtain and analyze the response characteristics of soil microbial community composition and function in different plantations. Meanwhile, the relationships between soil fungal community diversity, community structure and soil environmental factors were analyzed. Result The plantation of Populus × canadensis could significantly increase the soil pH value, soil-dissolved organic carbon and available phosphorus content, and reduce soil C/N ratio. The dominant fungal phyla in these plantations were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and the dominant fungal genera were Guehomyces, Mortierella and Penicillium. The results of NMDS and heatmap analysis showed that there were significant differences in the community structure and function of soil fungi among different plantations and the community composition and function could be divided into two clusters. The community structure of soil fungi in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, and Pinus tabuliformis plantations were similar, while the community composition and function in plantation of Populus × canadensis Moench were significantly different from that in coniferous plantations. The soil pH, available phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon and C/N ratio were the main factors affecting soil fungal community diversity and functions. Conclusion The effect on soil characteristics and the soil fungal composition and function differs among different plantations. The plantation of Populus × canadensis Moench significantly increases the soil nutrient availability and soil fungal diversity.
Effects of Different N P K Fertilizer Application Rates on Photosynthetic Characteristics, Yield and Quality of Corylus heterophylla × C. avellana
2020, 33(1): 55-61. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.007
[Abstract](2794) [FullText HTML] (1541) [PDF 714KB](56) [Cited by] ()
Objective To discuss the effects of fertilizing amount of N, P and K on photosynthetic characteristics, yield and quality of Corylus heterophylla × C. avellana, thus providing rational fertilization basis for the development of hazelnut industry in Xinjiang. Method "3414" field fertilizer effect test was used to determine the response of diurnal variation of chlorophyll content and chlorophyll maximum light energy conversion efficiency, the yield and quality of hazelnut leaves to different fertilization proportions of N, P and K during nut swelling period. Result It showed that the chlorophyll relative content (SPAD) of C. heterophylla × C. avellana increased with the increase of N fertilizer and decreased with the increase of P fertilizer; T5 (N2P1K2) had a significantly regulating effect on the values of Fo and Fm, T9 (N2P1K2) significantly affected the value of Fv; the vertical diameter, transverse diameter, lateral diameter, single fruit quality, nut quality and nut yield of T9 increased by 9.96%, 9.77%, 11.99%, 31.94%, 10.13% and 8.30% respectively; the crude fat and crude protein increased by an average of 11.56% and 16.67%. Conclusion Under the soil condition of middle level in Xinjiang, when the scalar fertilizing amounts of N, P2O5 and K2O are 1 205.6 kg·hm−2, 485.00 kg·hm−2 and 329.3 kg·hm−2, respectively, high quality and high yield of hazelnut can be achieved, which is conductive to improving the economic benefit of C. heterophylla × C. avellana.
Soil Organic Carbon Distribution and Its Correlation with Soil Physical and Chemical Indexes of Sonneratia apetala Plantation at Cuiheng Wetland
2020, 33(1): 62-68. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.008
[Abstract](3047) [FullText HTML] (1747) [PDF 1071KB](49) [Cited by] ()
Objective By comparing the content and distribution rules of soil organic carbon in Sonneratia apetala plantation at different tidal levels to study the correlation between the main soil physical and chemical properties indexes and the distribution of soil organic carbon in S. apetala. Method Taking the S. apetala plantation in Zhongshan Cuiheng Wetland National Park as an example, the soil organic carbon content and the main soil physical and chemical index were measured, the soil organic carbon density was calculated, and its correlation with soil physical and chemical index was analyzed. Result The average content and density of soil organic carbon showed significant differences in the vertical direction, which was in the order of high tide zone > middle tide zone > low tide zone. In the high-water zone, the maximum value of soil organic carbon content appeared in the 0-20 cm soil layer, and the maximum value of organic carbon density appeared in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Soil organic carbon content was significantly negatively correlated with soil salt content, extremely positively correlated with the total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and extremely positively correlated with soil pH value. Conclusion The density and content of soil organic carbon in S. apetala plantation in high tide zone are higher than those in middle tide zone and low tide zone. The soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus and pH value are significantly related to soil organic carbon content, so they can be used to judge the distribution of soil organic carbon in S. apetala plantation.
2020, 33(1): 69-75. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.009
[Abstract](2371) [FullText HTML] (1194) [PDF 522KB](35) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the effect of substrate ratio on the growth of containerized plantlets bred by Indocalamus decorus and Sasa auricoma rhizome segments, and provide a reference for the screening of light-weight substrates for bamboo rhizome. Method Three kinds of substrates volume ratio (A-3:5:2, B-3:4:3, C-10:0:0) were tested with waste chaff covered by forest land, peat and yellow subsoil as substrate materials. The growth status indicators and organ biomass allocation of the containerized plantlets of I. decorus and S. auricoma rhizome segments were measured. Result The results showed that the substrate ratio treatment had no significant effect on the lateral bud germination and survival rate of I. decorus and S. auricoma. But it had significant effect on the number of standing bamboos, height and ground diameter, which showed that the plantlet height and the number of standing bamboos of I. decorus with treatment A and B were higher than that of treatment C, but the difference in ground diameter was not significant, and the growth of the containerized S. auricoma plantlet was more sensitive to the reaction of the substrate ratio. The plantlet height of treatment A was significantly higher than that of treatment B and C, while the number of standing bamboo was the opposite. The diameter of treatment A and B was significantly higher than that of treatment C. Substrate ratio treatment significantly affected the total biomass of I. decorus and S. auricoma containerized plantlet. At the same time, the substrate ratio treatment had a significant effect on the distribution ratio of the leaves, rhizome, aboveground and underground biomass of I. decorus containerized plantlets, and had little effect on the proportion of stalk and root biomass allocation. However, the distribution of organ biomass in S. auricoma containerized plantlet was not significant, reflecting the inter-species differences. Principal component analysis showed that treatment B had the best cultivation effect, followed by treatment A, and treatment C was the worst. Conclusion The substrate ratio has obvious effects on the growth, biomass and distribution of I. decorus and S. auricoma. The containerized plants under the two treatments, A and B, have better growth and higher biomass. So it is preferable to select the light-weight substrate ratio of the treatment A or the treatment B to cultivate containerized plantlets with bamboo rhizome.
2020, 33(1): 76-83. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.010
[Abstract](2358) [FullText HTML] (1259) [PDF 799KB](39) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the conservation function of shrubby sand piles in the degraded ecosystem and the function of preventing wind and fixing sand in the ecological environment management of semi-arid desert steppe. Method Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. Caragana microphylla Lam and Caragana stenophylla Pojark are three kinds of typical desert nabkhas distributed in Otindag sandy land. The shrub and nabkha morphological parameters of three kinds of brush and soil fractal dimension under the bushes were measured and analyzed to explore the relationship between morphological development and soil particle composition characteristics under the bushes and shrub morphological features and sand-fixation ability. Result The results showed that the three kinds of typical shrubs were conical. Nabkha height increased in logarithmic curve line with the increase of nabkha radius. At the early stages the nabkha height grew fast with nabkhas radius increasing and then gradually turned to be stable when the bottom sand area increased. The speed of nabkha extension in horizontal direction was faster than that in vertical direction. There was a significant correlation between the morphological parameters of nabkha and shrub. With the increase of aboveground biomass, the height, radius, bottom area and volume of nabkhas significantly increased (P<0.05). Significant differences were found in volume and sand-fixing capability among the three kinds of shrubs, which were in the order of C. microphylla, C. stenophylla and A. pedunculata. The roles of shrub in fertile island formation were weakened by frequent wind erosion. The distribution of soil fractal dimension showed a significant positive correlation with proportion content of <0.1 mm diameter grains. The dustfall and other particles were intercepted or deposited under the thickets, the soil fractal dimension differed significantly among different species (P<0.05), followed the order of C. microphylla (2.346) > C. stenophylla (2.259) > A. pedunculata (2.149) > bare sandy (2.057). Conclusion The larger the thickets is, the larger the volume of nabkha and the more the fine particles deposited under the brush. The bigger the soil fractal dimension is. the stronger the sand-fixing capacity of plants is.
Changes of Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky in Different Developmental Stages
2020, 33(1): 84-91. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.011
[Abstract](2342) [FullText HTML] (1152) [PDF 651KB](29) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the change of the cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of larvae and adult of Semanotus bifasciatus and their potential reproductive functions between males and females by analyzing the components, contents, and ratios of CHCs of S. bifasciatus in different developmental stages. Method The CHCs extracted from different developmental stages of S. bifasciatus by hexane solvent and solid phase microextraction (SPME) methods were analyzed by means of gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (MS), and comparative analysis of the contents and ratios of CHCs were conducted. Result GC-MS analysis of the CHCs from different developmental stages of S. bifasciatus demonstrated the presence of four homologous series of alkanes: n-alkanes from C15 to C31, alkenes, monomethylalkanes, and dimethylalkanes. Of the total hydrocarbons in the body wall of the mature larvae, the n-alkane series from C15 to C31 accounted for 64.67%, with the major component being n-heptacosane (abundance: 21.57%); Squalene was the only detected alkene with 19.4% proportion in the CHCs; of the methylalkanes, it was 3-methylpentacosane and 11,15-dimethylheptacosane accounting for 15.93%. The n-alkane series accounted for 60.42% of the total hydrocarbons in newly emerged females, 74.15% in newly emerged males, 53.13% in flying stage females, and 45.99% in flying stage males. In the branched-chain series, the newly emerged female elytra accounted for 39.58%, the newly emerged male elytra for 25.85%, the flying stage female elytra for 46.87%, and the flying stage male elytra for 54.01% of the total hydrocarbons. The n-pentacosane was the highest abundance in male and female adults. With the development of S. bifasciatus from larvae to adult, the contents of n-alkanes showed a decreasing trend and the methyl-branched alkanes showed an increasing trend. The change of CHCs from solvent extracts showed the same trends as the SPME sampling method. Conclusion The change of compositions and contents of CHCs from different stages of S. bifasciatus is related to its developmental sexual maturity stages. 11Me-C26, 11Me-C27, and 3Me-C27 were not detected in the larval body wall, however, they showed significant differences in female and male elytra. It is speculated that these three compounds play important roles in reproductive behaviors of adults.
2020, 33(1): 92-98. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.012
[Abstract](3129) [FullText HTML] (1758) [PDF 750KB](44) [Cited by] ()
Objective To lay the foundation for studying the microtubule function of poplar, plant overexpression vectors of 84K poplar by constructing the tubulin TUA5 and TUB16 fused with red fluorescent protein mCherry, and using transient expression to verify the fluorescent signal after vectors expressed in plant. Method Primers for TUA5 and TUB16 genes of 84K poplar were designed using TUA5 and TUB16 homologous gene sequences from Populus trichocarpa, RNA from wild type 84K poplar was extracted and reversely transcribed into cDNA, homologous cloning yield 84KTUA5 and 84KTUB16 genes, which were respectively linked to N’ and C’ terminal of the mCherry fluorescent tag from pCAMBIA 1300 vector, and then transformed into E.coli TOP10 competent cells.Positive monoclonal were conducted by means of colony PCR, and after sequencing identification, the recombinant plasmid was transformed into agrobacterium GV3101 by electrochemical reaction to transiently transformed into tobacco leaf, and then observed fluorescence excitated from mCherry. Result The 84KTUA5 and 84KTUB16 genes were cloned and successfully linked to pCAMBIA 1300-mCherry vector, fluorescence observation of tobacco transient expression showed that only the fusion protein of the target gene linked to the C' terminal can be successfully expressed, and the fluorescence was obvious. Conclusion The fusion expression vectors of TUA5 and TUB16 genes of 84K poplar and pCAMBIA 1300-mCherry were successfully constructed respectively, which provids background materials for further study of poplar microtubule function.
2020, 33(1): 99-106. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.013
[Abstract](2553) [FullText HTML] (1374) [PDF 1303KB](35) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the regulatory role of LgFKF1 gene during flowering process of L.gratissima, based on the analysis of its gene structural characteristics and rhythmic expression in specific tissues. Method The RACE technology was used to clone the full length cDNA of LgFKF1 gene. Sequence of nucleotides and code of protein were analyzed by using the software of bioinformatics. qRT-PCR was applied in the rhythmic expression analysis of the gene in specific tissues. Result The result of sequence analysis showed that the LgFKF1 cDNA, 2 271 bp in length, has a 1 917 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein with 638 amino acids. The results of sequence alignment showed that the amino acids sequence was highly homologous with the FKF1 of Kaliphora madagascariensis, Allamanda cathartica, Wrightia natalensis and Asclepias curassavica, with the homology of 92.59%. LgFKF1 protein that had the closest genetic relationship with K. madagascariensis was unstable hydrophilic proteins without signal peptide and transmembrane regions, and located in the nucleus, mainly consisted of alpha helix, irregular curling structure and extended long chain. The result of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of LgFKF1 under inductive photoperiod for 7 days was higher than that under non-inductive photoperiod treatment,but the expression was lower than that under non-inductive photoperiod treatment if inductive photoperiod was more than 10 days. In a day, LgFKF1 expressed in various tissues,and showed a high transcription level in leaf. For the rhythmic expression of LgFKF1 in different tissues, one peak value was appeared at 23: 00 in root, leaf bud and flower bud, and two peak values were appeared at 20: 00 and 5: 00 in stem, 2: 00 and 8: 00 in leaf, 23: 00 and 5: 00 in mature flower. Conclusion LgFKF1 was cloned from L.gratissima, and its putative protein sequence was highly homologous with the FKF1 of other plants. The expression of LgFKF1 gene was affected by photoperiod.Under the inductive photoperiod, various tissues showed itself expression pattern. A peak value of LgFKF1 expression in leaf was only appeared at 8: 00 during the daytime,and the peak values in other tissues were occurred during the night. In these tissues, LgFKF1 showed higher transcription level in leaf. The rhythmic expression of LgFKF1 in specific tissues might be helpful to provides some references for further study on its biological function.
2020, 33(1): 107-112. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.014
[Abstract](2160) [FullText HTML] (1385) [PDF 782KB](25) [Cited by] ()
Objective The relationship between temperature, rainfall, temperature and humidity coefficient and population dynamics of web-spinning sawflies (Cephlca kunyushanica Xiao) was studied to explore the influence of meteorological factors on the occurrence of C. kunyushanica. Method Seven permanent plots were selected in Kunyushan Mountains and the temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the number of overwintering pupas were investigated during their development period. Then, the relationship between temperature, precipitation, temperature and humidity coefficient and the population dynamics in Kunyushan Mountains was analyzed Result The temperature needed by C. kunyushanica was different at different stages of their life cycle. The higher precipitation in June and July helped C. kunyushanica to lay eggs and hatch, while the lower precipitation was conducive to they fall the trees. The number of C. kunyushanica in one plot was significantly different among years (P<0.001). In addition, the total number and density of the overwintering C. kunyushanica in all the plots investigated were also extremely significant (P<0.001). The year variation of C. kunyushanica was consistent with the year variation of precipitation and humiture coefficient, while not consistent with the year variation of temperature coefficient. In general, lower temperatures, higher precipitation and humidity in 2011 led to an increase number of wintering C. kunyushanica. Conclusion Low temperature and high humidity environment suits overwintering pupas. Meteorological factor play an important role in controlling the occurrence of C. kunyushanica, which is an important part of the ecological control mechanism of forest pests.
Study on Acctractiveness of the Different Light Phototaxis and Different Light on Agrilus mali Mastumura
2020, 33(1): 113-122. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.015
[Abstract](2734) [FullText HTML] (1175) [PDF 675KB](31) [Cited by] ()
Objective In recent years, Agrilus mali Masumura has caused devastating damage to wild fruit forests in Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, and has shown a trend of spreading to cultivated orchards in plain areas. In order to monitor the dynamics of Agrilus mali Masumura effectively in the forest and find a new way of pollution-free control. Method mfirstly, sensitive wavelength selectivity of Agrilus mali Masumura was tested in the laboratory using five wavelengths. Then, different sticky boards with nine level wavelengths were used to compared in the fields. Result The results of laboratory experiments indicated that the Agrilus mali Masumura has different tendency to five kinds of wavelength monochrome light. In turn: 530nm>590nm> 450nm>380nm >650nm,and the phototaxis response rate of females was significantly higher than that of males. From the light intensity test results, the tendency to the monochrome light increased along with the light intensity enlarged. According to the results of fields trapping experiment, there were some differences in attracting effect of sticky boards with nine wavelength on Agrilus Mali Masumura. Among them, green (550 nm) and egg yellow (580 nm) sticky boards had the best trapping effect . the highest catches number is 7 per card per three days, with the average 2.86 per card per day.the weakest of the purple and red sticky boards. Conclusion
It can be seen that , Agrilus mali Masumura is sensitive to wavelength in the range of 530~590 nm. The sticky boards with the wavelength of 550~590 nm can be used as a dynamic monitoring method for the occurrence of A. mali in the fields.The conclusion of this study provides a very important scientific and technological support for the early warning and monitoring of Agrilus mali Masumura, and lays a solid foundation for effective prevention and control strategies in further.
Effects of Light Intensity on the Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Six Populus × euramericana Clones at Seedling Stage
2020, 33(1): 123-130. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.016
[Abstract](2322) [FullText HTML] (968) [PDF 1036KB](41) [Cited by] ()
Objective In order to provide a theoretical basis for rapid breeding of high light efficiency varieties of Populus × euramericana clones at seedling stage, the response of growth and photosynthetic characteristics of six P. × euramericana clones to light intensity were studied. Method The CK (100% natural light intensity), L1 (55% natural light intensity) and L2 (20% natural light intensity) were set in the field. The height growth, leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, chlorophyll content and mineral element content of P. × euramericana seedlings were determined. Result Except for P. deltoides CL. ‘Danhong’ × N146-9 P. nigra, the total height growth of all clones decreased with the decrease of light intensity; With the weakening of light intensity, the leaf morphological changes of clones were inconsistent, and there were differences in single leaf area, leaf type index and specific leaf area among the clones under the three light intensities. The net photosynthetic rate of the clones was the lowest under the treatment L2, while the intercellular CO2 concentration was the highest. The stomatal conductance of 11-26-8 was the highest under the three treatments. Under L1 and L2, the Fv/F0 values of P. deltoides CL. ‘Danhong’ × N146-9 P. nigra were the highest. The chlorophyll b content in clones showed the same change trend with the total chlorophyll content. The contents of potassium, calcium and magnesium in P. deltoides CL. ‘Danhong’ × N146-4 P. nigra, P. deltoides CL. ‘Danhong’ × N146-8 P. nigra and Zhongshi 8 × N31-26 P. nigra increased with the decrease of light intensity. Conclusion The adaptation strategies of different clones to the change of light intensity are different. The height growth and net photosynthetic rate of some clones decrease with the decrease of light intensity, and the decrease of light intensity will not destroy the PSⅡ structure of clones. The total chlorophyll content and mineral element content of most clones increase with the decrease of light intensity. Both the growth potential and weak light resistance of Zhongshi 8 × N31-26 P. nigra are weak.
Effects of Manganese Ion and Cobalt Ion Stress on Nutrition and Antioxidant Capacity of Gypsy Moth Larvae
2020, 33(1): 131-135. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.017
[Abstract](2478) [FullText HTML] (1280) [PDF 818KB](14) [Cited by] ()
Objective To determine the response mechanism of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae to Mn2+ and Co2+ stress. Method The effects of 0.40 mmol Mn2+·g−1 and 0.83 mmol Co2+·g−1 on body weight, nutrient intake, nutrient composition and total antioxidant capacity of the fourth instar larvae of gypsy moth were measured. Result Compared with the control group, the amount of food intake, feces and weight gain were significantly reduced. In the Mn2+ treatment group, the soluble protein content reduced by 33.76%, carbohydrate content by 57.56%, trehalose content by 64.05% and lipid content by 27.77%. In Co2+ treatment group, the soluble protein content reduced by 47.46%, carbohydrate content by 59.45%, trehalose content by 59.16% and lipid content by 33.71%. The total antioxidant capacity of the Mn2+ treatment group increased by 28.25%, and that of the Co2+ treatment group increased by 82.54%. These results showed that Mn2+ and Co2+ have significant inhibitory effects on the food intake, fecal content, weight growth, soluble protein content, carbohydrate content, trehalose content and lipid content of the larvae, and significantly promoted their total antioxidant capacity. Conclusion The larvae of gypsy moth respond to the stress of heavy metals mainly by improving the activity of their own antioxidant capacity, reducing sensitivity and improving resistance to heavy metals.
Family Variation and Selection of Growth and Branching Traits of 5-Year-old Taxus wallichiana var. mairei
2020, 33(1): 136-143. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.018
[Abstract](2691) [FullText HTML] (1977) [PDF 656KB](53) [Cited by] ()
Objective By testing Taxus wallichiana var. mairei elite families to select the fast-growing and genetically stable families suitable for different regions and sites. Method 5-year-old T. wallichiana var. mairei elite family plantations from different habitats were used to study the genetic variation and the family × site interaction. The experimental forests were established in 2014 at 3 sites (Chun'an of Zhejiang Province, Fenyi of Jiangxi Province and Mingxi of Fujian Province). Among the families used in the test, 55 from Chun'an, 39 from Fenyi, and 32 from Mingxi. There were 38 families shared by Chun'an and Fenyi, 14 families shared by Chun'an and Mingxi, 12 families shared by Fenyi and Mingxi. There were 11 families shared by all the three sites. Result The growth and branching traits of 5-year-old T. wallichiana var. mairei showed extremely significant differences among families. The family × site interaction effect on tree height and primary branch number was obvious. And the effect on other growth traits and branching traits was minor. There was a significant positive correlation among the growth traits and among the growth traits, primary branch number and the biggest branch diameter. Generally, the family heritability of the 5-year-old T. wallichiana var. mairei was higher. Compared with family heritability, the estimated heritability of the individual was lower. Taking the tree height as the selection criterion and considering the branching traits, a total of 10 excellent families was selected from the 3 sites. Conclusion There exists significant genetic differences in growth and branching traits among the families. The family heritability of 5-year-old T. wallichiana var. mairei is generally higher, and they are controlled by stronger genetics. The thicker and taller the tree, the more branches it has. The traits of tree height and primary branch number are sensitive to site, and the family × site interaction effect is extremely significant, and the site has a greater impact on it. It is found that the family SY10 performs well and is stable in multiple sites.
2020, 33(1): 144-151. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.019
[Abstract](3177) [FullText HTML] (1874) [PDF 916KB](38) [Cited by] ()
Objective This study aims at estimating the size, complexity and other characteristics of Nitraria sibirica Pall genome. Method Taking Solanum lycopersicum as DNA reference standard, the young leaves of N. sibirica were used as test material and mG as separate buffer to establish the N. sibirica genomic C-value by flow cytometry (FCM) method. A small fragment library was established for Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The genome size, heterozygosity, GC content and repetitive sequence ratio were studied and MISA script was used to analyze the SSR data. Result The size of N. sibirica genome was 526.30 Mbp, the heterozygosity rate was 0.90%, the GC content ratio was 36.78% and the repeat sequence ratio was 55.39%. Using the assembled genome data for SSR analysis obtained 521 125 loci, of which mononucleotide repeat were 342 883 loci, accounting for 65.80% of the total SSRs. Conclusion It is predicted that the N. sibirica genome has a complex nature and can be analyzed via Illumina combined to PacBio and Hi-C technologies in order to facilitate the assemble of N. sibirica genome and the acquisition of genetic maps.
2020, 33(1): 152-161. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.020
[Abstract](2862) [FullText HTML] (1840) [PDF 757KB](57) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the phenotypic diversity of natural population of Carya dabieshanensis so as to provide theoretical supports for the collection, selection and improvement of germplasm resources, and lay a foundation for the development and utilization of C. dabieshanensis. Method 198 C. dabieshanensis individuals were selected from 19 natural populations and 16 phenotypic characters of the fruits and leaves were investigated and determined. These data obtained were processed using nested analysis, One-Way ANOVA analysis, correlation analysis, and Un-weighted pairing average algorithm to reveal the relationship between phenotypic traits and geographical distribution of C. dabieshanensis and its variation. Result (1) There were significant differences for 16 traits in phenotypic variation among and within populations (P<0.01), indicating that the phenotypic diversity of C. dabieshanensis was very abundant. (2) The variation of 16 phenotypic traits ranged from1.64% to 26.59%, and the average coefficient of variation was 9.63%. The average variation coefficients of fruit and leaf characters were 6.16% and 15.42%, respectively. Because of the smaller variation coefficient of fruit phenotype, the traits were relatively stable. (3) The results of correlation analysis of phenotypic traits showed that there were 60 pairs with extremely significant correlation among characters and 11 pairs with significant correlation. (4) The percentage of mean variance components among and within populations were 49.28% and 17.53% respectively. The average phenotypic differentiation coefficient was 66.25%, indicating that the phenotypic variation of C. dabieshanensis was mainly attributed to among populations. (5) The 19 populations could be divided into 4 categories when the distance coefficient was 0.04. The clustering was basically consistent with the change of longitude.
2020, 33(1): 162-170. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2020.01.021
[Abstract](2428) [FullText HTML] (1363) [PDF 1264KB](48) [Cited by] ()
Objective To study the effect of exogenous GA3 concentrations on endogenous hormones of flower organ and fruit setting rate of Camellia oleifera, to analyze the correlation between endogenous hormones of flower organ and fruit setting rate of C. oleifera and to find the best exogenous GA3 concentration for promoting the fruit setting rate of C. oleifera. Method By using single factor test design, 9-year-old C. oleifera ‘Changlin-4’ was used as test material, 100, 200,300, 400 and 500 mg·L−1 GA3 were sprayed on the leaves of C. oleifera, and fresh water was served as control and sprayed in order to observe the effects of different concentrations of exogenous GA3 on the endogenous hormones and fruit setting rate of C. oleifera. Result Spraying low concentrations of exogenous GA3 in the test level was conducive to improving the fruit setting rate of C. oleifera. The optimal spraying concentration of exogenous GA3 for improving the fruit-tea setting rate was 66.69 mg·L−1. Spraying low concentration of exogenous GA3 reduced the ABA content of the pistil of C. oleifera, increased the content of ZR and GA3 of the pistil of C. oleifera. IAA content of the pistil of C. oleifera decreased at first and then increased. The content of endogenous ABA in the stamens increased at first and then decreased, the content of ZR and GA3 increased, and the content of IAA decreased at first and then increased by spraying low concentration of exogenous GA3. There was a significant negative correlation between pistillary ABA and fruit setting rate in the initial wilting stage (P<0.05). Conclusion In the test level range, the optimal spraying concentration of exogenous GA3 for improving the fruit setting rate of C. oleifera is 66.69 mg·L−1. To control the content of endogenous ABA, ZR, IAA, GA3 of flower organ of C. oleifera and regulate the content of ABA by spraying different concentrations of GA3 stretches out an arm in improving the fruit setting rate of C. oleifera.