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2022, 35(6)
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2022, 35(6): 0-0.
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The Response of Leaf Anatomical Structure and Photosynthetic Physiology of Pinus massoniana Lamb. and Castanopsis hystrix Miq. to Throughfall Reduction
GUO Xin-wei, LIU Shi-rong, WANG Hui, CHEN Zhi-cheng, NIE Xiu-qing, ZHANG Jing-lei, MING An-gang, CHEN Lin
2022, 35(6): 1-11. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.001
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Objective To explore the response of leaf anatomy and leaf photosynthetic physiology to long-term drought and analyze the relationship between leaf anatomy and leaf photosynthetic physiology under long-term drought conditions. Method We conducted a manipulation drought experiment by reducing the throughfall in the forest and measured the leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nutrient (N, P) and leaf anatomy of the two typical tree species (Pinus massoniana Lamb. and Castanopsis hystrix Miq.) in subtropical China at the 8th year after the throughfall reduction treatment. Results (1) Significant differences were observed in leaf anatomy between P. massoniana and C. hystrix in response to throughfall reduction; the upper and lower epidermis, leaf thickness and stomatal density of P. massoniana needles increased significantly. However, the thickness of the upper epidermis of the leaves of C. hystrix increased significantly, and the thickness of the spongy tissue decreased significantly. (2) No significant differences were observed in the gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rate Pn, stomatal conductance Gs, transpiration rate Tr), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II maximum photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency ΦPSII, apparent electron transfer rate ETR) and leaf nutrient contents of both species after 8 years of throughfall reduction. (3) Compared with P. massoniana, the stomatal limitation (Ls) of the C. hystrix was larger and the water use efficiency (WUE) was higher, especially in the dry season. Conclusion There are differences in the strategies of P. massoniana and C. hystrix to cope with drought stress. P. massoniana responds to drought by adjusting leaf anatomy to produce xeromorphic needles, while C. hystrix is more inclined to adjust stomata (Ls) and improve water use efficiency (WUE) to adapt to drought.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Nutrients and Antioxidant Components in Nuts of Chestnut
WU Yan-yan, SHI Wen-shi, SHI Xin-ru, CHEN Rong-rong, ZHAO Yue, ZHAO Jia-bing, JIANG Ze-ping, WANG Zhi-wei, SHI Sheng-qing
2022, 35(6): 12-22. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.002
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Objective To explore the feasibility of antioxidant enzymes as germplasm evaluation indices of chestnut (Castanea mollissima) and improve the evaluation system of excellent germplasm resources. Method Eighteen chestnut germplasms were collected in the areas of Yanshan Mountains in Hebei Province. The appearance traits, nutrients and antioxidant components (including 4 enzymatic indexes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and 3 non-enzymatic indexes: total polyphenols, total flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined and the qualities of chestnut germplasms were evaluated through subordinate function and factor analysis (with or without antioxidant enzymes) to screen excellent germplasm resources. Result Among these germplasms, the average weight of single fruit was 9.65 g, the largest was TPZ (12.51 g), and the smallest was QTC (7.88 g); the average water content was 48.85%, the highest was TPZ (51.59%), and the lowest was LJT (45.95%); the average value of starch content was 46.81%, LJT was the highest (53.69%), and JCY-1 was the lowest (38.28%); the average value of soluble sugar content was 7.96%, ZQ1 was the highest (11.62%), and YHZ was the lowest (4.51%); the average value of SOD activity was 1 012.37 U·g−1, the highest was TPZ (1 310.42 U·g−1), and the lowest was ZQ1 (717.40 U·g−1); the average value of POD activity was 4 168.67 U·g−1, JIH was the highest (5 965.33 U·g−1), and JCY-3 was the lowest (3 009.33 U·g−1). Conclusion Regardless of whether four antioxidant enzymes were used or not in the comprehensive evaluation ranking, the top one was QX107, followed by QL3113, QX3113, and HHZ20. In addition to the above three cultivars, ZJ2 and ZQ1 could be used as candidate elite germplasms for further test. The antioxidant enzymes SOD, POD, CAT and PPO could be considered as the evaluation indices of chestnut germplasms in future.
Soil Aggregate Structure of Subalpine Woodland and Its Influence on Priority Path in Central Yunnan
LU Hua-xing, ZHAO Yang-yi, DUAN Xu, ZHU Meng-xue, TU Xiao-yun, YANG Wen-yan
2022, 35(6): 23-34. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.003
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Objective To analyze the influence of soil aggregate structure on the formation of soil priority path for subalpine woodland in central Yunnan for providing scientific basis for the construction of water conservation forest, the restoration and reconstruction of natural forest vegetation in central Yunnan forest area. Method Based on four subalpine woodland soils of Pinus yunnanensis forest, Pinus armandii forest, Quercus semecarpifolia forest and Keteleeria evelyniana forest in central Yunnan, the soil priority path was extracted by using dye tracing method, combined with Photoshop CS 5, image pro plus 6.0 and surfer 15 image processing software. The structural characteristics of soil aggregates were systematically evaluated, and the effect of soil aggregate structure on priority path was explored by correlation analysis, principal component analysis, grey correlation analysis and coupling degree analysis. Result Results showed that: (1) the soil of four subalpine forest lands in the study area had good aggregate structure, and the structural stability in the P. armandii forest was the largest, followed by K. evelyniana forest, P. yunnanensis forest, and Q. semecarpifolia forest. The soil aggregate structure was significantly affected by forest land type and soil depth (P < 0.05), and it was correlated with the content of water stable aggregates in different particle sizes. (2) The preferential flow of forest land soil had advantages. The connectivity of priority paths in P. armandii forest was better than that of P. yunnanensis forest, Q. semecarpifolia forest, and K. evelyniana forest. In addition, the number of priority paths gradually decreased with the increase of soil depth. (3) The content of water stable aggregates with particle size > 0.25 mm (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), mean weight soil specific area (MWSSA), percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) and fractal dimension (D) could better evaluate the structural characteristics of soil aggregates. The correlation with the number of priority paths was more than 0.62, which was important factor affecting the formation of priority paths. (4) The average coupling degree between soil aggregate structure and the number of priority paths for subalpine forest land in central Asia was 0.683, and the system belonged to weak coordination. The coupling coordination degree in P. yunnanensis forest was the largest (0.728), followed by P. armandii forest (0.681), Q. semecarpifolia forest (0.663), and K. evelyniana forest (0.662). Conclusion Soil aggregate structure is an important factor that affects the formation and occurrence of soil priority path, but it does not play a decisive role in the formation of priority path.
Effects of Litter and Nitrogen Addition on Carbon and Nitrogen in Soil Leaching Solution of Subtropical Castanopsis fabric and Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest
WANG Meng-si, MA Hong-liang, GUAN Xiao-hui, GAO Ren, YIN Yun-feng
2022, 35(6): 35-43. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.004
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Objective Litter is the main source of carbon and nitrogen in forest soils. The effect of litter decomposition on soil carbon and nitrogen by leaching was studied through analyzing the changes of dissolved carbon and nitrogen in litter or soil leaching solution, for exploring the relationship between litter decomposition and soil carbon and nitrogen. Method Soil and litter in broad-leaved and coniferous forests were collected from subtropical forests. Six treatments were set, including litter, soil, litter + soil, nitrogen + litter, nitrogen + soil, and litter + soil + nitrogen. Three replicates were set for each treatment. The nitrogen addition amount was 120mg NH4 + -N·kg−1 soil. The amount of litter added in coniferous and broad-leaved forests was 12.1 g·kg−1 and 19.7 g·kg−1, respectively. The litter was placed on the surface of soil or quartzite, and the soil moisture was controlled at 60% water-holding capacity. An incubation experiment was carried out with nitrogen addition by leaching to simulate nitrogen deposition in a dark incubator at 25 ℃ for 220 days. During the incubation period, the nitrogen solution leached in 5 times with different nitrogen amounts, each with 110 mL of solution (80, 10, 10, 10, 10 mg NH4 + -N in sequence according to the number of leaching times), and the leaching solution was collected and measured.. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), and NH4 + -N and NO3-N in the leaching solution were also measured. Result The results showed that the litter leaching solution had lower inorganic nitrogen and DON, and higher DOC. Litter addition significantly reduced the NO3-N by 22.6% and 29.9% in the coniferous forest and broad-leaved forest soil leaching solution, respectively and increased the DOC by 181.4% in the coniferous forest soil leaching solution. However, litter addition significantly decreased the DON by 39.2% in the broad-leaved forest soil leaching solution and MBN by 53.2% in the broad-leaved forest soil. Under nitrogen addition, the interception of added nitrogen by litter was less, and the interception of litter in broad-leaved forest litter was higher than that in coniferous forest. Litter input to soil by leaching decreased DOC, while DON increased. Nitrogen addition increased soil leaching inorganic nitrogen and coniferous forest soil leaching solution DON, but the effect of litter on reducing soil nitrogen leaching was not weakened by nitrogen addition. Conclusion The litter slows down the negative impact of soil NO3-N output on water environment. Nitrogen addition can affect soil nitrogen changes by altering the output of DOC and DON in broad-leaved and coniferous forest litters.
Larval Behavioural Responses of Melanotus cribricollis (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to the Volatiles Emitted from Bamboo Shoot and Carbon Dioxide
ZHANG Wei, TENG Ying, HUANG Xu-jun, LI Zhi-hong, ZHANG Ya-bo, SHU Jin-ping, WANG Hao-jie
2022, 35(6): 44-51. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.005
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Objective To understand the mechanism of food foraging below ground of Melanotus cribricollis larva which is the dominant and most destructive soil-dwelling insect of bamboo shoots in south China and provide important basic information for the development of effective monitor and control techniques. Method We tested the orientation behavior of M. cribricollis larvae towards bamboo shoot and CO2-releasing capsules by using a dual-choice olfactometer. The volatiles emitted from Phyllostachys violascens shoot were tentatively identified by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with GC-MS, and their relative content were determined as well. Result Both bamboo shoot and CO2 source could significantly induce the directional movement of the larvae of M. cribricollis. There was no significant difference in the larval behavior among different weights of bamboo shoots (P>0.05), whiel larval orientation behavior was significantly correlated with CO2 concentration (P<0.05). Between bamboo and CO2-releasing capsules, wireworms preferred significantly to the bamboo shoot (P<0.05). A total of 17 compounds emitted from Ph. violascens shoot were tentatively identified. The higher relative contents were olefins (66.62%) and sesquiterpenes (27.98%), and the sesquiterpene compound with the highest content was α-humulene. Conclusion M. cribricollis larvae shows significant stronger orientation towards bamboo shoot and CO2 source, and prefers bamboo shoot significantly. Compared with CO2 source, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from bamboo shoot show to be more effective in food foraging of bamboo shoot wireworm. In addition, 7 terpene compounds with potential attraction to wireworms are identified in this study, which provids important basic information for the development of attract-and-kill formulations for the control of wireworms.
The Effect of Russula rosea and Russula griseocarnosa on Microorganism Structure of Mycosphere Soil
YU Fei, LIANG Jun-feng
2022, 35(6): 52-63. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.006
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Objective To provide a theoretical basis for the conservation and propagation of the two species of Russula and the realization of artificial cultivation, the mycosphere soil microbial communities of Russula rosea and Russula griseocarnosa was analyzed, and the soil microorganisms that promoting the growth of the two species of Russula were screened. Method The community structure of mycosphere and bulk soil microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) of two species of Russula were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, and evaluated comprehensively based on soil physicochemical property. Result The mycosphere soil microorganisms of the two species of Russula were slightly different. The dominant mycosphere soil microorganisms of R. rosea were Acidothermus, Mycobacterium, Reyranella, Ktedonobacter, Rhodanobacter and Oidiodendron, while the dominant mycosphere soil microorganisms of R. griseocarnosa were Variibacter, Bryobacter, Blastochloris, Cladophialophora, Paecilomyces and Arthrinium. Bacteria (Variibacter, Candidatus_Solibacter, Sorangium, Mycobacterium, Singulisphaera, Isosphaera, Bdellovibrio and Paenibacillus) and fungi (Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Hypomyces) were the common growth promoting microbes of Russula rosea and R. griseocarnosa. pH was the key factor affecting mycosphere soil microorganisms. Conclusion The two species of Russula can specifically select soil microorganisms that are beneficial to their growth according to their growth needs and form different microbial community structures. The mycosphere mycorrhizal auxiliary bacteria that were screened out in this study can provide theoretical basis for the preparation of special microbial fertilizer and artificial propagation promotion of Russula, which has great promotion for the sustainable utilization of Russula, the expansion of understory edible fungi scale and the improvement of economic benefits.
Early Selection on Growth and Disease Resistance in Three Corymbia Species in Guangxi
LI Chang-rong, ZHENG Yong-deng, GUO Dong-qiang, QIN Kai-feng, CHEN Sheng-kan, LI Juan, TANG Qing-lan, WU Qin-zhan
2022, 35(6): 64-72. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.007
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Objective To understand the growth of three Eucalyptus species of the genus Corymbia introduced in Guangxi, and preliminarily select species, provenances and families with disease resistance for providing scientific basis for the orient cultivation of sawn wood. Method Based on the 3 month-old provenance/family trail of Corymbia in Guangxi State Sanmenjiang Forest Farm, tree height and disease status were investigated. The disease resistance index was used to analyze the disease status., Differences between species, provenances, and families were evaluated by analysis of variance. Genetic variation parameters of traits were estimated, and the excellent species, provenances, and families for disease resistance were selected by independent elimination method. Results The results showed that: tree height, survival rate and resistance disease index had significant difference among four species (P < 0.001); there were no significant difference in height, survival rate and resistance disease index between provenances of Corymbia maculate and Corymbia henryi. The three traits were significant different among the families of these two provenances (P < 0.01), except that the disease resistance index of Corymbia maculate was not significantly different among families; there were extremely significant differences in tree height and disease resistance among the provenances and families of Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegate (P < 0.001), but the differences in survival rate were not significant; the difference of resistance disease index among provenances and families of Corymbia citriodora were significant (P < 0.001), but difference in height and survival rate were not significant. The heritability and repeatability ranged from 0.05 to 0.43, which was controlled by weak to moderate genetic intensity. Corymbia citriodora was the superior species with the best growth and disease resistance. A total of 7 provenances and 47 families were selected. Their mean values of height, survival rate and resistance disease index were 57.1%、1.8%、67.4% and 57.1%、0.9%、69.8% higher than the population mean values, respectively. The genetic gains of height and resistance disease index of provenance and family were 12.0%, 21.9% and 17.1%, 21.6%, respectively. Conclusion The disease-resistant species, provenances and families were selected, which provides basis of germplasm materials for further breeding.
Study on Adaptation Strategies of Quercus variabilis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Platycladus orientalis to Drought in Taihang Mountain
NIU Cun-yang, SHOU Wen-kai, YANG Xi-tian, ZHANG Zhi-hua, QIAO Yong-sheng
2022, 35(6): 73-82. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.008
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Objective To provide theoretical basis for vegetation restoration in Taihang Mountain, the study discussed different adaptation strategies of Quercus variabilis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Platycladus orientalis to drought from perspective of hydraulic architecture. Method Based on Quercus variabilis (38-year-old), Robinia pseudoacacia (42-year-old) and Platycladus orientalis (30-year-old) in Taihang Mountain, Native sapwood specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (Ksmax) of perennial stems were measured by using a Pipette. Percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) of Quercus variabilis and Robinia pseudoacacia were measured by flushing method, and PLC of Platycladus orientalis was measured by vacuum method. Wood anatomy was measured by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope technology. Result (1) The mean vessel diameter (Dv), hydraulic weighted vessel diameter (Dh) and aperture fraction (Fap), number of pits per unit area of vessel wall (Np), total pit area per vessel area (Fa) of Quercus variabilis and Robinia pseudoacacia were all significant higher than those of Platycladus orientalis. Ks and PLC of the former two deciduous tree species were therefore significantly higher than those of Platycladus orientalis; (2) The Dv, Dh, surface area of inter-vessel pit membranes (Ap), area of single pit aperture (Aap), Fap, Np and Fa of Robinia pseudoacacia were significantly higher than those of Quercus variabilis. However, PLC of Robinia pseudoacacia was significantly lower than that of Quercus variabilis, which might be due to the fact that the pit chamber and pit aperture of Robinia pseudoacacia had punctate and dentate vestures, which enhanced resistance to drought induced cavitation. (3) The Aap , Fa and Fap increased with the increase in the diameter of the xylem vessels of the three tree species. Conclusion Quercus variabilis and Robinia pseudoacacia have high xylem water transport efficiency, which indicates that they employ fast growth strategy. While Platycladus orientalis adopts conservative resource acquisition strategy with lower xylem water transports efficiency. The xylem vessels and pit structures synergistically affect xylem water transport efficiency and resistance to drought-induced cavitation, and xylem anatomy is an important trait determining the adaptation strategies of different tree species to arid environments.
Parasitism Rate and Progeny Development of Sclerodermus alternatusi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) on Different Stage of Thyestilla gebleri (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
TANG Yan-long, WANG Li-na, JIA Jie-li, KANG Kui, ZENG Bo-ping, WEI Ke
2022, 35(6): 83-88. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.009
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Objective To compare the differences of parasitism and progeny development of Sclerodermus alternatusi on different stages of Thyestilla gebleri. Method The parasitism rate, developmental duration, female and male progeny number, male progeny proportion of S. alternatusi parasitized the larva and pupa of T. gebleri were investigated. Result The results showed that both the larva and pupa of T. gebleri could be parasitized by the bethylid, and the parasitism rate on different stages of T. gebleri showed no significant difference. Successful emergence rate of parasitoid offspring showed significant difference on different stage of T. gebleri, 93.33% and 57.69% emergence rates were observed on the larva and pupa of longhorn-beetle. The pre-oviposition period of female wasp, egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage, and immature stage of wasps' offspring showed no significant differences on the larva or pupa of host, T. gebleri. The average pre-oviposition periods of female wasps were 6.63 d and 6.43 d when they were inoculated on the larva and pupa of cerambycid host, respectively. The average durations of offspring egg, larval, pupal, and immature stage were 4.34 d and 4.57 d, 8.34 d and 8.52 d, 19.89 d and 20.07 d, 32.61 d and 33.40 d, respectively. The number of female progeny and the total number of offspring were 39.50 and 41.18 when the parasitoid parasitized on the host larva, respectively; and the average numbers were 30.80 and 32.20 when the parasitoid were bred with host pupa. Both had significant differences. There was no significant difference in the number of male progeny when the foundress parasitized on host larva or pupa, with an average of 1.96 and 1.40. The male proportion was also not significantly different, with an average of 5.00% and 4.45%, respectively. Conclusion Emergence rate and female progeny quantity of parasitoid parasitized the T. gebleri larva are much higher than the beetle pupa was used as host. Using the late-stage larva of T. gebleri as alternative host can result in the highest fitness in the mass-rearing of S. alternatusi.
Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Loci and Specific Monomorphism SSR Marker Development in Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Reference Genome
HE Jun-xing, MA Qing-guo, PEI Dong, ZHANG Jun-pei
2022, 35(6): 89-100. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.010
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Objective To identify the number and distribution of SSR loci on different chromosomes in the whole genome of walnut (Juglans regia L., 2n = 2x = 32), and to develop and validate the monomorphic SSR primers. Method In this study, walnut whole genome sequencing data were used as experimental materials, and the whole genome microsatellites were screened and analyzed by bioinformatics software MISA. Primer 3.0 was employed to design monomorphic SSR primers. SSR primers were evaluated by electronic PCR and some of the monomorphic ones were synthesized randomly to detect their usefulness and verify the effectiveness of the method. Result (1) A total of 357 629 SSR loci were identified in the walnut genome, with a distribution density of 662.28 SSRs/MB. The dominant repeat units were mainly A/T bases, showing significant base preference. These SSR sequences were mainly short sequences with a length of 10~30 bp, up to more than 95.00%. The number of SSR loci on different chromosomes varied greatly. Among them, the number of SSR loci on chromosome 1 was the largest, and the numer of SSR loci on chromosome 16 was the least. The number and type of SSRs showed positively correlated with chromosome sequence length. Most of the 644 rare SSR units were hexa-nucleotides. (2) Based on cluster analysis, all the 16 chromosomes could be divided into 4 groups, of which the number of members in group 4 was the most (11), and there was only chromosome 10 in group 1. In general, chromosome 10 forms a main branch, indicating that it may have experienced a relatively conservative evolutionary history. (3) 303 009 pairs of SSR primers were designed by using the conservative sequence flanking the SSR locus. And then 32 pairs of monomorphic primers clarified by electronic PCR were randomly screened and synthesized for wet PCR experiments, of which 30 pairs (93.75%) were amplified in 6 walnut varieties. The PCR amplification results of 28 pairs (87.50%) were consistent with that of electronic PCR. Conclusion In this study, SSR loci in different chromosome sequences of ‘Zhongmucha-1’ walnut reference genome are identified. Their amounts and repeat types are found to be highly variable among different chromosome sequences and show a highly significant positive correlation with chromosome length. Mono-nucleotide repeat SSRs are the most common type. A novel protocol combining electronic PCR and traditional screening methods are established and validated, which provide an effective strategy for the personalized and rapid development of walnut SSR primers. The developed 28 pairs of monomorphic primers can provide scientific basis for “Illegitimacy Testing” of hybrid offspring in molecular marker assisted breeding.
Synergistic Effect of 3-bromopyruvate Combined with Hyphantria cunea Nucleopolyhedrovirus Against Hyphantria cunea (Drury)
LIU Rui-xia, LI En-jie, BAI Chao, WANG Qing-hua, DUAN Li-qing
2022, 35(6): 101-107. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.011
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Objective In this paper, we used 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) as a biological synergist of Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HycuNPV) to investigate the effect of 3-BrPA on the virulence of HycuNPV and the growth and development of Hyphantria cunea, which will provide new synergist resources for the application of HycuNPV insecticides. Method The synergistic effect on HycuNPV was analyzed by adding different doses of 3-BrPA incorporating with HycuNPV in laboratory. Result The bioassay results showed that 3-BrPA had a synergistic effect on HycuNPV. It could not only improve infectivity of HycuNPV, but also increase the insecticidal speed. When the dosages of 3-BrPA with 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg·g−1 were added to HycuNPV, the LC50 of HycuNPV in the 3rd instar larvae of H.cunea decreased. The synergistic ratio (SR) of HycuNPV were 825.14, 164.72 and 0.47, and the co-toxicity coefficients (CTC) were 82613.63, 16579.25 and 147.27, respectively. Different concentrations of HycuNPV had different insecticidal effects under the different doses of 3-BrPA. Added different doses of 3-BrPA, the LT50 of HycuNPV against the larvae were shorten by 3.280~9.724 d. According to SR, CTC, LT50 and ST, the optimum synergistic effect was observed: 5.0 mg·g−1 3-BrPA + 9.0 × 105 OBs·mL−1 HycuNPV. In addition, the combination of 3-BrPA and HycuNPV significantly inhibited the growth and development of larvae, and the pupation and emergence rate of surviving larvae were significantly lower than that of the virus insecticide alone. Conclusion 3-BrPA has a synergistic effect on HycuNPV, and is expected to be an ideal synergistic resource of viral insecticides.
Niche Characteristics of Population in Shrub Communities in Spruce-fir Forest Burned Areas on the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
ZHAO An, ZHOU Xiao-lei, SHI Rui-jin, ZHOU Xu-jiao, YANG Fu-qiang, HE Wan-peng
2022, 35(6): 108-117. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.012
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Objective To reveal the niche characteristics of shrub community population in the burned areas of Spruce-fir forest in different years on the northeast edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Method Levins and Shannon Wiener niche breadth index, Pianka and Schoener niche overlap index were used to calculate the niche breadth and niche overlap degree of population, and the specialized species and generalized species of community were divided. Result The results of Levins and Shannon Wiener niche breadth index of shrub species in burned and unburned forest land were basically the same, and there were differences in the niche breadth of the same species in burned and unburned forest land. There are three specialized species in the 5-years burned area, two specialized species and 1 generalized species in the 15-years burned area and one specialized species in unburned forest land. The proportion of species logarithms with severe niche overlap among species was 15-year-burned land>5-year-burned land>unfired forest land. The species logarithm proportion of general niche overlap was 5-years-burned land>15-yearly-burned land>unfired Woodland. And the proportion of species logarithm with less niche overlap was unburned forest land > 15 years burned area > 5 years burned area. Conclusion After severe fire disturbance in the Spruce-fir forest on the northeast edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the degree of niche overlap among species of shrub communities in burned areas of different years is constantly changing, while the degree of niche overlap among species in undergrowth of unburned forest land remains relatively low, and the community is in a positive succession stage.
Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from the Roots of Alpine Quercus in Subalpine Regions of Hengduan Mountains
LI Hong-bo, MA Li, HUANG Yao-hua, KANG Ding-xu, WU Jian-rong, MA Huan-cheng, CHEN Shi
2022, 35(6): 118-126. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.013
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Objective To understand the root endophytic fungal composition and diversity of alpine oaks in the Hengduan Mountains. Methods The root samples of three alpine oak species were collected. The fungal symbiosis within the root system was observed using the root immersion staining method, and the endophytic fungus were isolated and purified. These fungi species were identified by combining morphological and molecular biological methods. Results Numerous DSE fungi and AMF clumped structures were found in these oak roots samples. A total of 27 fungal species in 20 genera of 17 families were identified. one family of ectomycorrhizal fungus uncultured Ceratobasidiaceae (GSL1-7), four species of dark septate endophytes (DSE) Boeremia exigua var.exigua. Phialophora mustea (GSL2-2, GSL2-9), Paraboeremia putaminum (GSL4-F, GSL20-B), and two clearly reported plant growth-promoting fungi Pseudogymnoascus roseus (GSL4-1-A, GSL4-2) and Trichoderma tomentosum (GSL80-D) were also found. The consequence of α-diversity measurement indicated that diversity of culturable fungi in the root systems of three species of alpine oak was rich but not significantly different. Four species of DSE and three species of plant-promoting fungi accounted for 31.3% in the root system. Conclusion These fungi play an important role in the adaptive growth of alpine oak under the harsh environmental conditions in the Hengduan Mountains. The results of this paper provide a preliminary theoretical basis for elucidating the ecological adaptive mechanism of alpine oak in the Hengduan Mountains region, and provide a living strain resource for developing the use of probiotic fungi in alpine oak seedlings.
Influencing Factors on the Crown Ratio of Korean Pine Plantation in Eastern Liaoning Province
LIU Qi-feng, CHEN Dong-sheng, FENG Jian, GAO Hui-lin
2022, 35(6): 127-134. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.014
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Objective To study the effects of different competition levels and topography on the canopy length and compare the forest layers, the crown ratio model considering competition and topographic (slope, slope aspect and slope position) variables of Pinus koraiensis plantation in eastern area of Liaoning province was developed. Method The crown ratio model was developed by incorporating competition index and topographic variable using re-parameterization and dummy variable methods. and the specific topographic variable expressing the largest contribution was selected. The effect of competition and topographic variable on the crown ratio was simulated. Result Compared with the basic model, the R2a for the finial model incorporating competition, topographic variable and forest layer increased by 0.113, RMSE decreased by 0.012. The contributions of competition, slope aspect and forest layer to the crown ratio model were 14.14%、2.25%、0.16%, respectively. The crown ratio decreased with the increase of D and increased with the increase of forest competition. With the increase of the competition, the crown ratio turned from negative growth to positive growth with tree height increasing gradually . The F test showed that there were significant differences in crown ratio between different slope aspects and forest layers, and the change rule was shady slope > semi-sunny slope > sunny slope and upper forest layer > lower forest layer. Conclusion Topography and forest competition factors significantly affect the crown ratio, and slope aspect is the most important topographic factor affecting the crown ratio of individual tree of Pinus koraiensis plantation. The crown ratio model based on topography and forest competition has high accuracy and provides a reference for the management and growth prediction of Pinus koraiensis plantation in eastern area of Liaoning Province.
Effect of Different Concentrations of Graphene on the Growth, Root Morphology and 15N Uptake and Utilization of Cunninghamia lanceolata Seedlings
PENG Ting-ting, WEI Yong-ping, ZHANG Jin-feng, ZHANG Xiao, CHEN Hong-hua, CHEN Ai-ling, ZHAO Jian-guo, HU Ya-lin, CAO Guang-qiu
2022, 35(6): 135-142. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.015
Abstract:
Objective To provide theoretical basis for the efficient cultivation of C. lanceolate, the effects of graphene on the growth, root morphology and nitrogen uptake and utilization of Cunninghamia lanceolata were investigated in this study. Method A pot experiment with four concentrations of graphene (0, 20, 25, 30 mg·L−1) was conducted in this study by using the superior clone of C. lanceolata seedlings ‘Yang 061’ to investigate the growth, root morphology, 15N distribution and utilization rate of C. lanceolata seedlings under various graphene treatments. Results The indexes of growth and root morphologies were maximum at 25 mg·L−1 graphene concentration except for stem weight and root volume, but no significant difference were observed among different treatments. The 15N utilization rate of seedlings was 25 mg·L−1>20 mg·L−1>30 mg·L−1>CK1, and the distribution of 15N in different organs of C. lanceolata seedlings was leaf > stems > roots. Correlation analysis results showed that a significantly positive correlation between roots 15N partition rate and seedlings 15N utilization rate with different growth indexes were observed except for root length, root volume, root 15N partition rate and root diameter. Conclusion A certain concentration of graphene is beneficial to the growth of C. lanceolata seedlings and can promote the absorption and utilization of N.
Analysis of Moth Diversity in Oak Forests, Quercus variabilis and Q. mongolica in Northern China
REN Xue-yu, PANG Yan, WANG Mei, LI Guo-hong, WANG Yan-jun, LI Jian-zhong, WANG Hong-bin
2022, 35(6): 143-150. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.016
Abstract:
Objective To provide the basis for monitoring and controlling moth pests in oak forests, the structure and diversity of moth communities were investigated in two main natural oak forest ecosystems, Quercus variabilis, and Q. mongolica, in northern China for revealing the potential changes caused by temporal and habitat. Methods The composition and diversity of moths in temporal and spatial differences were compared through collecting the specimen of moth using light trap during summer from June to September 2019 in three typical plots, including Q. variabilis forest in Jiulong Mountain, Mentougou District, Beijing; Q. mongolica forest in Luanping County, Hebei and in Keshiketeng, Inner Mongolia. Result A total of 293 moth species in 21 families were obtained from the plots. The largest number of moths and the most species were concentrated in Noctuidae and Geometridae. However, the species composition of the community differed significantly in terms of space and time. The moth species composition and structural similarity in the Q. mongolica forest in Hebei were more similar with the Q. variabilis in Beijing than those in Q. mongolica forest in Inner Mongolia. In addition, the emergence period of adult moths exhibited obvious temporal changes, and the greatest number of species and individuals were found in July at each plot. Diversity results showed that the Marglef richness index, Shannon diversity index, and Pielou evenness index of moths in Beijing and Inner Mongolia plots were higher than those in Hebei plot, and the community performance was stable. Among them, the Marglef richness index showed obvious differences in the diversity characteristics of family, genus, and species, while the changes of other indexes were consistent. Conclusion The composition and diversity of moth communities in oak forests show obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Environmental factors can significantly affect moth biodiversity indicators. Richness indicator differences at various taxonomic levels can be used for distinguishing the geographical distribution and degree of certain taxa.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Antimony Tolerance of Different Catalpa bungei Clones based on Factor Analysis
LIU Zhen-hua, WANG Jun-hui, TONG Fang-ping, SUN liang, LI Gui, CHEN Rui, WU Min, LIU Zuo-qun, MA Wen-jun
2022, 35(6): 151-160. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.017
Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the antimony tolerance of 10 different clones of Catalpa bungeiso for providing plant materials for the remediation of antimony contaminated soil. Method Under different antimony stress, the growth, biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, antimony content, leaf anatomical structure, hydrogen peroxide content, superoxide anion content, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, POD, APX) of different clones were determined. The antimony tolerance of 10 different clones was evaluated by factor analysis. Result The results showed that under different concentrations of antimony stress, there were significant differences in aboveground and root biomass except 8402. The plant height and ground diameter of most clones increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of sb concentration. The root biomass of clone 8402 and 72, was higher than that of the control. Under the sb concentration 2 000 mg·kg−1, the other clones promoted the increase of the root biomass under low antimony concentration, and gradually decreased with the increase of antimony concentration to a certain concentration. Antimony was mainly accumulated in root. Under concentration 600 mg·kg−1, clone 63 had the highest antimony content in roots and leaves, and 8402 had the highest antimony content in stems. Under 1 200 mg·kg−1, clone 5-2 had the highest antimony content in roots,1-1had the highest antimony content in the stem and leaf . Under 2 000 mg·kg−1, the highest antimony content in roots, stems and leaves was clone 5-8,8402 and 72, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of reactive oxygen species in plants under certain antimony stress. Conclusion The comprehensive evaluation of antimony tolerance of 10 Catalpa bungei clones under 0-2 000 mg·kg−1 antimony stress is clone 5-8 > 0 > 20-01 > 2-8 > 5-2 > 63 > 8402 > 1 > 72 > 1-1. The results provide plant materials for the remediation on antimony contaminated soil, and can improve the remediation effect of antimony contaminated soil. Under 2 000 mg·kg−1 antimony concentration in soil, Catalpa bungei clones with strong antimony tolerance can be used for remediation.
Effects of Slow-release Fertilizer Addition and Inoculation of Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Growth Traits and Nutrient Status of Cyclobalanopsis gilva Container Seedlings
HUANG Sheng-yi, YANG Meng-qing, WANG Bin, ZHOU Zhi-chun, WANG Xiu-hua, XU Wei-ke, WU Ren-chao
2022, 35(6): 161-169. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.018
Abstract:
Objective To improve the container seedlings cultivation level of Cyclobalanopsis gilva with mycorrhiza. Method Based on the interaction experiments of different slow-release fertilizer addition levels and inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi, the effects of slow-release fertilizer × mycorrhizal fungi on the growth traits and nutrient status of 1-year-old container seedlings of Cyclobalanopsis gilva were analyzed. A split-plot experimental design was used with inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the main plot and different slow-release fertilizer addition levels in the sub-plot. The main plot was mycorrhizal treatment, which was divided into two treatments: inoculation (10 mL of Pisolithus tinctorius with a concentration of 36.28 mg·mL−1 was injected into the middle part of the seedling container) and non inoculation. The area was treated with matrix slow-release fertilizer addition, and five slow-release fertilizer addition gradients (1.50, 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50 kg·m−3) were set. Results Inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi promoted the growth of 1-year-old C. gilva container seedlings under different slow-release fertilizer addition levels. There was significant interaction between slow-release fertilizer addition and inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi on total biomass and P utilization index of container seedlings. After inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi, growth traits such as seedling height, caliper, sturdiness quotient, total biomass, total root length and root diameter increased by 18.70%, 7.16%, 10.75%, 24.55%, 1.02% and 18.47% compared with that no inoculation, respectively. N content, N uptake and utilization index, P uptake and utilization index increased by 2.04%, 27.10%, 27.67%, 19.72% and 30.52%, respectively, while P content decreased by 2.94%. There were extremely significant differences in growth traits and nutrient status between inoculated and non-inoculated except total root length and N and P contents. Regardless of whether mycorrhizal fungi were inoculated or not, with the increase of slow-release fertilizer addition level, all growth traits increased first and then decreased except root diameter, P content and uptake showed an overall increasing trend. The growth was the best when the slow-release fertilizer addition level was 3 kg·cm−3. The N content and absorption of the container seedlings without mycorrhizal inoculation showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, while the N and P utilization indexes decreased first and then increased. There was no obvious change in N content and N absorption. Conclusion Inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungus with P. tinctorius can promote the growth of C. gilva container seedlings and improve the nutrient utilization efficiency of N and P, and the effect of promoting mycorrhizal growth is more significant under low slow-release fertilizer addition.. In production, inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi can improve the quality of container seedlings and reduce the use of slow-release fertilizer, which is helpful to the cultivation of high quality seedlings of C. gilva and save seedling cost.
Radial Variation of Sap Flow in Eucalyptus and Its Effect on the Estimation of Whole Tree Transpiration
QIN Jia-shuang, GU Da-xing, NI Long-kang, HE Wen, LIN Fu-rong, ZHOU Cui-ming
2022, 35(6): 170-176. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.019
Abstract:
Objective To provide a reliable basis for the accurate estimation and scale expansion of transpiration in medium and large diameter Eucalyptus plantations, the radial variation of sap flow and its effect on the estimation of whole tree transpiration were analyzed. Methods The sap flow density at three sapwood depths (0-2 cm, 2-4 cm and 4-6 cm) of 10-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis was monitored using the Granier-type thermal dissipation probe (TDP). Result The results showed that the diurnal variation of sap flow density in each sapwood depth showed a single-peak pattern, and the sap flow density decreased with the increase of sapwood depth. Compared with the daily whole tree transpiration estimated based on sap flow density in three sapwood depths (Tr246), the daily transpiration when trade the sap flow density in 0-2 cm (Tr2), 2-4 cm (Tr4) and 4-6 cm (Tr6) sapwood depth as the whole tree sap flow density were overestimated by 92.9% and underestimated by 28.2% and 74.0%, respectively. The sap flow in 0-2 cm sapwood depth was more sensitive to environment compared with the other two depths and Tr2 had higher correlation with Tr246 (R2=0.964) compared with Tr4 and Tr6. As a result, the sap flow in 0-2 cm depth could be used to estimate whole tree transpiration of Eucalyptus when calibrated based on Tr246 (Tr246=0.522 Tr2). Conclusion Eucalyptus shows obvious radial variation in sap flow density and there may lead to large errors in estimating whole tree transpiration when ignoring the radial variation of sap flow. The whole tree transpiration of Eucalyptus can be estimated easily and accurately using sap flow in 0-2 cm sapwood depth based on the calibrated function.
Effects of Environment-Friendly Water-retaining Materials on Soil Moisture Characteristics of Soil and the Evaluation
HOU Mei-juan, WEI A-long, CONG Ri-chun
2022, 35(6): 177-186. doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2022.006.020
Abstract:
Objective To explore the influence of environment-friendly water-retaining materials on soil moisture characteristics. Methods Three environment-friendly water-retaining materials, porous fiber cotton, biochar and carbon cotton, were selected and compared with three traditional water-retaining materials, sodium polyacrylate, acrylamide-potassium acrylate and potassium polyacrylate. Sandy soil was taken as the matrix and mixed with various water-retaining materials at different mass ratios, and CK. By the method of water control experiment, the dynamic curves of soil moisture and soil water characteristic of each water-retaining material were measured, respectively. And the influence of water-retaining materials on soil water characteristics was analyzed. Results The environment-friendly water-retaining materials could reduce soil bulk density and increase soil porosity and water holding capacity. Among them, 10% carbon cotton in soil had a significant effect on the water holding parameters. Under the condition of natural drought, all water-retaining materials could restrain soil water evaporation more effectively than CK. During 40 days, 10% carbon cotton retained the most moisture throughout the water loss process. After 40 days of drought stress, the water content of 10% cotton was 3.37% higher than that of CK group. All of the six water-retaining materials could increase the soil effective water content. The soil effective water content in the material T3 had the largest, followed by N, H, T2, S3, S2, D3, K, D2, S1, T1, D1, CKof which 10% cotton treated soil effective water content was the most. Conclusion Through the comprehensive evaluation of principal component analysis and membership function method, 10% carbon cotton has the best water retention effect among environment-friendly water retention materials.