• 中国中文核心期刊
  • 中国科学引文数据库(CSCD)核心库来源期刊
  • 中国科技论文统计源期刊(CJCR)
  • 第二届国家期刊奖提名奖

Journal Introduction

Forestry Science Research is a comprehensive academic journal of forestry science sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Forestry Science. The main task is to timely reflect the latest research results, academic papers and reports, scientific and technological trends and information of forestry science with the Chinese Academy of Forestry as the main body, to promote academic exchanges at home and abroad, to carry out academic discussions, to prosper forestry science and to better serve China's forestry construction. The main contents are: forest seeds, seedling raising and afforestation, forest plants, forest genetic breeding, tree physiology and biochemistry, forest insects, resource insects, forest pathology, forest microorganisms, forest birds and animals, forest soil, forest...

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Hydrological Effects of Litters in Different Types of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations in Huitong of Hunan, China
ZHANG Ying, XU Qing, Gao De-qiang, SUI Ming-zhen, ZHANG Bei-bei, REN Ran-ran1,ZUO Hai-jun, WANG Si-long
[Abstract](43) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 995KB](0)
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Objective To evaluate the impact of litter on hydrology in different types of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations, and provide references for the management of understory and the assessment of ecosystem services. Method Based on field investigation and immersion experiments, the authors examined the storage capacity, water retention characteristics, and effective interception capacity of the litters collected from pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (PC), mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Cinnamomum camphora (MCC) and mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Alnus cremastogyne (MCA) in subtropical China. Result (1) The litter storage of different types of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation varied from 7.94 to 8.88 t·hm−2, with an order of MCC > MCA > PC, and the proportion of semi-decomposed litters was greater than that of undecomposed litters. (2) The water-absorption rate of litter in various plantations increased rapidly within the initial 4 hours of immersion, followed by a slower increase at 4−10 hours of immersion, and finally saturated. Compared with semi-decomposed litter, the undecomposed litter had a higher maximum water-holding capacity and maximum water-holding capacity. Both semi-decomposed and undecomposed litters in mixed plantations exhibited higher maximum water-holding rate and maximum water holding capacity than that in pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation. (3) The maximum interception rate of the three types of plantation ranged from 152.33% to 229.55%. The maximum and effective interception capacity were 12.62−17.94 t·hm−2 and 10.26−14.75 t·hm−2, respectively, exhibiting higher in both MCC and MCA than in PC (P < 0.05). Conclusion The hydrological effect of litters varies among different types of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Huitong, while the hydrological characteristics of mixed forests of Cunninghamia lanceolata with broad-leaved species are significantly better than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation. Therefore, mixed stand of Cunninghamia lanceolata with broad-leaved species should be recommended in forest management and vegetation restoration.
Spatiotemporal Expression Analysis of PaAG2 Gene in Populus alba × P. glandulosa '84K'
ZHONG Shan-chen, WU Shu, WANG Li, SU Xiao-hua, ZHANG Bing-yu
[Abstract](30) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 837KB](0)
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Objective To identify the role of PtAG2 gene in the development of male flowers of poplar. Method Based on the regulation of AG genes (PtAG1 and PtAG2) in the stamens and carpels of monoecious plants, the spatial and temporal specificity of PaAG2 gene of Populus alba × P. glandulosa '84K' was studied by means of paraffin section, real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. Taking the flower branches of P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K' as test materials, the inflorescences were continuously sampled within one week after hydroponic culture to observe the development of male flowers by paraffin sectioned technique. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of PaAG2 in the roots, stems, leaves and inflorescence of P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K'. In situ hybridization was used to detect the specific expression sites of PaAG2 in the flower organs of P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K' male flowers, so the expression pattern of PaAG2 gene was analyzed. Result During the development of male flowers of P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K', the anthers matured gradually. At the same time, the expression of PaAG2 increased at initial and then decreased, and the transcription was also be detected in the roots, stems and leaves of tissue cultured P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K'. The results of in situ hybridization showed that PaAG2 was expressed in the anthers of P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K' male flowers but not in the surrounding tissues. Conclusion PaAG2 gene is closely related to the male flower development of P. alba × P. glandulosa '84K', so it is expected to be a target gene for genetic engineering to improve poplar pollen. However, whether the PaAG2 gene participates in the regulation of the growth and development of other tissues of poplar needs to be further studied.
Construction of Core Collection of Catalpa fargesii Bur. Based on Phenotype
YU Xiao-chi, LI Feng, OU Yang, ZHANG Peng, GUO Xiao-long, XIAO Yao, ZHAO Qiu-ling, YANG Gui-juan, WANG Jun-hui, MA Wen-jun
[Abstract](174) [FullText HTML](93) [PDF 676KB](2)
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Objective To obtain a more reliable primary core germplasm group of Catalpa fargesii, to strengthen the breeding, development and utilization and molecular genetics research, to reduce the conservation cost of germplasm resources, and to promote the identification and effective utilization of C. fargesii germplasm resources. Method Based on the leaf traits, the growth traits and the wood traits of 200 C. fargesii clones from Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi and He'nan provinces, five genetic distance calculation methods, six clustering methods, three sampling methods and five sampling ratios were used to construct the primary core germplasm resources, and then evaluated them. Result Using the Euclidean distance and the Single system clustering method, the deviation sampling with 15% sampling proportion was adopt to construct the primary core collection of 30 clones, the mean difference percentage was 10%, the variance difference percentage was 40%, the coincidence rate of range was 91.95%, and the changeable rate of coefficient of variation was 136.96%, which could best represent the original germplasm group. The construction of core collection increased the percentage of germplasm with leaf length, leaf width, leaf length width ratio, petiole length, diameter at breast height, crown width and elastic modulus higher than the average, and reduced the percentage of germplasm with Pilodyn value higher than the average. The percentage of core collection in Shaanxi, Shanxi and He'nan provinces were higher than that of the original collection. Conclusion This research showed that there are abundant genetic variation in each trait of C. fargesii clones. The 30 core germplasms not only retain the mean, range and degree of variation of the original germplasms, but also increase the variationcoefficient of the germplasms, and slightly increase the growth and the material quality level of the germplasms. This research laid a foundation for promoting the identification and effective utilization of germplasm resources.
Electroantennogram and Behavioral Responses of Dioryctria abietella to Volatiles from Picea likiangensis var. linzhiensis Cones
TANG Xiao-qin, WANG Si-zhan, LU Jie, GAO Tan, CHEN Yi-qu
[Abstract](30) [FullText HTML](26) [PDF 621KB](1)
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Objective To screen the cone volatiles in the cones of Picea likiangensis var. linzhiensis, which have an attractive effect on the Dioryctria abietella, in order to clarify the host selection mechanism of D. abietella and provide a theoretical basis for the pest-free control of pests. Method Electroantennography (EAG) and "Y" olfactometer were used to measure the EAG reaction and olfactory behavior of D. abietella to the main components of the cone volatiles of P. likiangensis var. linzhiensis with different concentrations and formulations. Result The results of GC-MS showed that the healthy new cones and the infested old cones contained six compounds, but the composition and content were slightly different. The results of EAG showed that in the range of 10 μg/μl, the higher the concentration of α-pinene, β-pinene, (1S)-(-)-β-pinene, limonene, the bigger the EAG response of the D. abietella in different states. However, the EAG value decreased after 10 μg/μl. Under the concentration of 10 μg/μl, the EAG value of the moth in different states was significantly higher than under the other concentrations (P < 0.05). The EAG reaction of unmated female and male moths on beta-caryophyllene increased with the concentration, and the EAG reaction value in 0.5 μg/μl was not significantly different from the control (P > 0.05). After reaching 1 μg/μl, no significant difference was found in the EAG value among concentrations (P > 0.05), while the EAG reaction between 0.5 μg/μl and 1 μg/μl was significantly different (P < 0.05). The EAG response of the mated female moth and the unmated female moth to myrcene increased with the concentration. When the concentration reached 100 μg/μl, the EAG value was the largest, nevertheless the EAG value of 100 μg/μl and 10 μg/μl was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The results of olfactory behavior showed that formula A2, A3, A5, A7 and A8 had obvious attracting effect, especially formula A7, and the attracting rate of D. abietella in different states was over 70%. Unfortunately, formula A4, A9, A10 had obvious avoidance effect, and the avoidance rate of D. abietella in different states was as high as 50%~70%. Conclusion 10 μg/μl of each component is the best stimulation concentration. Beta-caryophyllene has obvious attracting effect, while myrcene has obvious avoidance effect.
Cloning and Transient Expression Analysis of CUC1 Gene from Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.
CUI Jing-hong, YU Lei, LIANG Nan-song, SONG Ting-ting, LYU Yi-pin, JI Xin-tong, XU Liang, ZHAO Fu-jiang, ZHAN Ya-guang
[Abstract](235) [FullText HTML](171) [PDF 1060KB](4)
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Objective To clone the CUC1 gene of Fraxinus mandshurica and analyze its expression characteristics, so as to lay a foundation for the regulation of the gene in the regeneration of F. mandshurica Method The FmCUC1 gene was cloned from F. mandshurica seedlings. The nucleotide sequence of FmCUC1 gene and the amino acid sequence of its coding protein were analyzed by bioinformatics software, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The FmCUC1 gene was transferred into onion inner epidermis cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection method for subcellular localization. The tissue surface of FmCUC1 gene in root, stem, leaf and apical bud was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis. At the same time, the seedlings of F. mandshurica were sprayed with IAA, 6-BA and BR hormones to analyze the expression pattern of FmCUC1 gene induced by different hormone signals; the FmCUC1 gene was transiently transformed into F. mandshurica by A. tumefaciens for 72 hours. Result The full length of FmCUC1 gene was 807 bp, encoding 269 amino acids. FmCUC1 was a stable hydrophobic protein with a conserved NAC domain protein domain. The sequence similarity of FmCUC1 protein and Olea europaea subsp. europaea protein was 86.17%, which was close to each other. FmCUC1 protein was located in the nucleus. q-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression of FmCUC1 gene was the highest in the terminal bud of F. mandshurica; during hypocotyl bud regeneration, the expression of FmCUC1 gene was high in both bud point formation and clump formation; during seed germination, the expression of FmCUC1 gene reached two peaks on the 4th and 8th day, which were 8.56 and 8.46 times of that on the first day, respectively. The results of exogenous spraying IAA, 6-BA and BR showed that the expression of FmCUC1 gene was up-regulated compared with the control, and reached the highest value after 72 h of IAA and BR treatment, which were 45.72 times and 20.36 times of the control, respectively, and reached the peak value after 48 h of 6-BA treatment, which was 59.40 times of the control. A. tumefaciens mediated transient overexpression of FmCUC1 gene for 72 hours, the expression of FmCUC1 gene and its downstream STM gene increased significantly. Conclusion FmCUC1 gene belongs to NAC family and is a nuclear transcription factor. It participates in the process of shoot regeneration of Salix mandshurica, and responds to the induction of IAA, 6-BA and BR plant hormone signals. Overexpression of FmCUC1 gene can activate the expression of its downstream STM gene, which is conducive to the formation of apical meristem.
Response of Individual Height of Larix principis-rupprechtii Plantation to Site Factors and Stand Characteristics in Liupan Mountain Area
ZHANG Zhong-hui, WANG Yan-hui, GUO Jian-bin, WANG Xiao
[Abstract](310) [FullText HTML](230) [PDF 1156KB](8)
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Objective For the main afforestation species of Larix principis-rupprechtii in the forest area of Liupan Mountains, To study the response of individual tree height in Larix principis-rupprechtii, the main afforestation species in the forest area of Liupan Mountain Area, to site conditions and stand structure, in order to predict tree height growth more accurately, and to determine the suitable site for afforestation and proper stand structure for forest management, so as to guide the accurate and precise management of stand structure. Method The tree height growth data of L. principis-rupprechtii were obtained by carrying out the survey of analytic trees of various dominances in selected typical plots with various site conditions and stand structure characters, and the response law and suitable function forms of tree height response to all single factors were determined by the upper boundary line method. Then the tree height growth model which can reflect the influence of multiple factors was formed by a continuous multiplication. The model parameters were fitted using the measured data for getting the optimal tree height growth model. Result (1) The growth process of individual tree height of L. principis-rupprechtii showed a "S" curve. (2) Correlation analysis showed that the influence on tree height growth by the factors except tree age followed the order of elevation > canopy density > tree dominance > stand density > slope aspect > slope. (3) The most suitable conditions for the height growth of L. principis-rupprechtii are the elevation range of 2 000−2 400 m, the slope aspect range from shade slope to half shade slope, the slope gradient range of 20°−225°, the canopy density range of 0.49−20.64, the stand density of 1100−21300 trees/hm2. In addition, the height of individual trees increased with rising tree dominance but with a leveling-off increase rate after the dominance is higher than 0.2. (4) The height growth model of individual trees was established by coupling the response functions to the main influencing factors, with a satisfactory fitness. Conclusion The individual tree height growth of L. principis-rupprechtii is affected by both site conditions and stand structure characteristics. The main influencing factors are tree age, elevation, canopy density, and tree dominance. When considering the influencing factors, the coupled model of individual tree height growth can predict the spatio-temporal variation of individual tree height more accurately, and benefit the rational management of L. principis-rupprechtii plantation.
Prediction of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Contents of Chinese fir Based on Ecological Factors and Artificial Neural Networks
TONG Ran, CHEN Qing-biao, ZHOU Ben-zhi
[Abstract](327) [FullText HTML](150) [PDF 658KB](5)
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Objective To achieve the accurate, economical and quick prediction of leaf carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Chinese fir. Method Taking the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as objects, a RBF (radial basis function) neural network with highly nonlinear mapping relationships between input layer and output layer was used to build the optimal prediction models for the leaf C, N, and P contents of Chinese fir and ecological factors including geography, climate and soil properties. Result The simulation prediction of leaf average C, N, and P contents were 476.68, 12.27, and 1.24 mg·g−1, respectively, the leaf N content of Chinese fir was far less than that of terrestrial plants in China; the leaf average C/N, C/P, and N/P were 40.28, 412.01, and 10.50, respectively. The prediction results were well consistent with the measured values, indicating that it was feasible to use the RBF neural network model for predicting the relationships between leaf C, N, and P contents and ecological factors. Conclusion These models could accurately estimate the leaf C, N, and P contents of Chinese fir, the mean errors are 1.82%, 9.88%, and 7.02%, respectively. Both the relatively low leaf N content and N/P indicate the growth of Chinese fir is limited by N element in subtropical China.
Radial Genetic Variation Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Wood Properties in Ten-year-old Section Aigeiros Clones
YAN Han-wei, CHENG Ya-jing, YU Tong-tong, YU Na, ZHOU Liang, LIU Sheng-quan
[Abstract](75) [FullText HTML](62) [PDF 708KB](2)
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Objective The purpose of this research is to study the differences and genetic characteristics of various timber traits among Section Aigeiros clones, and to evaluate the excellent degree of wood properties of the clones, so as to provide theoretical basis for breeding clones with excellent comprehensive characters in experimental areas, and promote the directional cultivation of industrial timber. Method The wood properties (anatomical features, physical properties, and chemical composition) of ten-year-old sample trees (5 plants per clone) were measured from 8 experimental Section Aigeiros clones in Jiaozuo, He'nan Province. The genetic variation and genetic parameters of 18 wood traits were analyzed, and principal component analysis was used to evaluate the clones. Result Except the hemicellulose, the other 17 wood properties of poplar clones showed significant differences among clones. The variation range of clone repeatability was 0.49-0.93, in which the total dry density, basic density, total cellulose, cell diameter and cell cavity diameter were more than 0.8. The phenotypic variation of clones was greater than the genetic variation. Populus × euramericana `Zhonglin 46' was selected as the superior clones based on the highest core of principal component factors. Conclusion The eight poplar clones showed genetic differences in 18 wood properties, which were under strong genetic control and possessed the conditions of genetic improvement. There were radial differences in clone repeatability. With the increase of annual rings, the variation range of physical properties was the smallest, and the total dry density and basic density were relatively stable.
Genome-wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of UGT Gene Family members in Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.)
LYU Zhong-rui, LIU Hong, ZHANG Guo-yun, YU Li-yang, LUO Hong-mei, HE Cai-yun
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML](64) [PDF 1492KB](0)
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Objective To study the characteristics and potential functions of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and to analyze the biosynthesis mechanism and accumulation pattern of flavonoid glycosides by identifying the UGT gene family members in sea buckthorn. Method BLASTP and hmmsearch were used to identify the members of the HrUGT gene family based on sea buckthorn genome database. The protein physical and chemical properties, phylogenesis, protein motif and gene structure and gene duplication were analyzed by using Prot-Param, MUSCLE, MAGA7.0, MEME and MCScanX. Result 89 HrUGTs containing the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase motif (PSPG) were identified from the sea buckthorn genome. The length of sea buckthorn UGT proteins ranged from 266 to 533 amino acids, the average molecular weight was 50.00 KDa, and the average isoelectric point was 5.89. According to the phylogenetic relationship, the 89 HrUGTs could be divided into 16 major groups. 84 HrUGTs were distributed on 11 chromosomes except chromosome 7. Tandem duplication was a predominant duplication event which caused the expansion of HrUGT genes. Transcriptomic data and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that most of UGT genes had a wide range of fruit development stage expression characteristics. Conclusion The complete information of the HrUGT gene family is obtained, which will benefit the study on the biological functions of HrUGTs.
Absorption and Transformation of Sulfur Dioxide by Populus × euramericana cv. 'Purui'
FENG Jin-xia, MA Jie, WAN Xian-chong
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 580KB](0)
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Objective To investigate the absorption and transformation of sulfur dioxide in the air by three poplar varieties in order to study the mechanism of sulfur dioxide resistance and the capacity of Populus × euramericana cv. 'Purui' in purifying the atmosphere. Method Three poplar varieties (Populus × euramericana cv. 'Purui' (Purui), Populus × euramericana cv. '74/76' (107) and Populus × euramericana cl. 'Zhonglin 46' (Zhonglin 46)) were selected to compare their effects on absorbing and purifying the sulfur dioxide in atmosphere. The diurnal dynamic changes of sulfur dioxide concentration in the air inside and outside the forests were measured. The concentrations of sulfate (SO42-) in the leaves of Purui, Zhonglin 46 and 107 under different sulfur dioxide pollution environments were measured. Result The daily dynamic changes of sulfur dioxide concentration inside and outside the forests indicated that the three poplar varieties were able to absorb sulfur dioxide, and hence purify the air. Among them, Purui had significantly greater capacity in sulfur dioxide absorption and air purification than Zhonglin 46 and 107. Sulfate ion concentration in Purui leaves was significantly higher than that in Zhonglin 46 and 107. Whether in the environment of high or low concentration of sulfur dioxide, the sulfate ion in the leaves of Purui was higher than that of the other two varieties, indicating that Purui had stronger ability to absorb sulfur dioxide and convert it into non-toxic sulfur compounds. This is also an important mechanism of sulfur dioxide resistance for Purui. Conclusion Among the three poplar varieties, Purui has stronger ability to purify the atmosphere polluted by sulfur dioxide, thereby detoxifying sulfur dioxide, so as to better purify the air and reduce the harm of haze to human body. Compared with other poplar species, Purui has stronger ability to convert sulfur dioxide into non-toxic sulfate ions, which can facilitates its detoxification.
Variation and Selection of Seedling Growth Traits Among Juglans mandshurica Provenances and Families
LU Xian-bo, XU Lian-feng, PANG Zhong-yi, LIU Ji-feng, WEN Bao-yang, PEI Xiao-na, ZHAO Ling, WANG Xue-gang, ZHAO Xi-yang
[Abstract](40) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 629KB](0)
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Objective To analyze and select the genetic variation of growth traits among provenances and families of Juglans mandshurica, in order to promote the selection and breeding of J. mandshurica superior varieties. Method In this study, the growth characteristics (tree height, annual growth of tree height, ground diameter, crown width, straightness, branch angle, number of side branches and taperingness) of 28 J. mandshurica families (6-years-old) within 4 provenances at Wanrenhuan Forest Farm were measured and analyzed. Result The results of analysis of variance showed that most of the traits reached extremely significant differences among various sources (P < 0.01). The phenotypic and genetic coefficient of variation of these traits ranged from 12.865% to 43.171% and from 5.176% to 25.533%, respectively. The family heritability and individual heritability were ranged from 0.284 to 0.797 and from 0.048 to 0.483, respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that the correlation of almost all traits reached a significant level (P < 0.05), except the correlations between sharpness and branch angle, between sharpness and number of side branches, and between straightness and crown width. The results of general combining ability analysis showed that with a selection rate of 20%, 6 excellent parents were screened according to different traits. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the three principal components reached 73.264%, indicating that the three principal components contained most information of the measured trait. According to the comprehensive scores of PCA, one excellent provenance, three excellent families and 10 excellent individual plants were initially selected. The realistic gains of tree height, average annual increase in tree height, ground diameter and crown width of selected provenance were 3.109%, 5.014%, 2.193%, and 1.040%, respectively. The genetic gains of the 4 traits of the families selected were 5.835%, 5.410%, 7.908%, and 6.069%, respectively. The genetic gains of the 4 traits of selected individuals were 26.74%, 24.11%, 23.91% and 26.53%, respectively. Conclusion The growth traits of J. mandshurica have rich variations within provenances and families. The excellent provenances, parents, families and individuals preliminary selected could lay a basis for the selection and application of J. mandshurica varieties.
Analysis on Spatial Variability of Soil Trace Elements in Miyaluo Subalpine Dark Coniferous Forest of Western Sichuan, China
XIONG Kai, ZHAO Yu-juan, CHEN Jian, ZHANG Yun, ZHAO Guang-dong, YANG Hong-guo, SHI Zuo-min, XU Ge-xi
[Abstract](34) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 914KB](2)
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Objective To study the spatial heterogeneity of soil trace elements in Miyaluo subalpine dark coniferous forest of western Sichuan so as to provide scientific basis for soil quality evaluation, the protection of regional ecological environment and the research on biodiversity co-existence mechanism of the subalpine forest in Western Sichuan. Method A subalpine dark coniferous dynamic forest plot (400 m × 240 m) was established in Miyaluo of western Sichuan. By combining field sampling, laboratory measurement, classical statistics and geostatistical analysis, the spatial heterogeneity of 0~10 cm surface soil trace elements were analyzed, including Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and their correlations with soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) total phosphorus(TP) and total potassium (TK) Result (1) The mean content of Fe was 17.22 g·kg−1, and the mean content of Mn, Cu, and Zn were 423.09, 4.33 and 47.91 mg·kg−1 respectively; (2) The high values of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn contents appeared mainly in the high altitude area of the dynamics plot eastern portion and with patch shape, the spatial distribution characteristics of soil Zn was relatively simple with strong continuity; (3) The coefficient of variance (CV) of all soil trace elements content ranged from 29.76%~63.84%. And the CVs of soil Fe and Mn were 29.76% and 63.84%. The Nugget/Sill ratio of soil trace element content ranged from 0.08 to 0.50. Mn and Cu showed a strong spatial autocorrelation, whereas Fe and Zn showed a moderate spatial autocorrelation; (4) In addition to the Cu and pH, Zn and SOC , Zn and TK, the other 17 pairs of soil properties had a significant (P < 0.05) or extremely significant (P < 0.01)correlation. Conclusion The content of trace elements Fe and Mn in the soil of the dark coniferous forest in the western Sichuan are high, but the content of Cu and Zn are low. The spatial distribution characteristics of soil Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn content show obvious spatial autocorrelation. There is a universal correlation between soil Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn content and soil pH, SOC, TN, TP, and TK.
Anther Structure and Pollen Development Characteristic of Manglietia conifera
PAN Li-qin, HAO Jian, XU Jian-min, LI Hong-lin, LIANG Fu-jiang, ZHANG Qing-qing, JIANG Qing-bin
[Abstract](37) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 2154KB](1)
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Objective The anther structure and microspore development of Manglietia conifera were studied to determine the abnormal phenomenon of male microspore development, and to provide evidence and accumulation data for further study on the taxonomic status of M. conifera and the phylogeny of Magnoliaceae. Method The anther structure, microspore and male gametophyte development of M. conifera were observed by means of anatomy and morphology. Result The results showed that the mature anther of M. conifera was composed of 5 to 7 layers of cells, including the surface layer, the inner wall, the middle layer and the tapetum. The 4-6 microsporangia were arranged in a linear pattern and the anther dehiscence was centripetal or lateral. There were two types of cytokinesis of microspore mother cell: continuous type and simultaneous type. The arrangement of microspore in a tetrad was isobilateral, linear or tetrahedral, and the mature pollen was two-celled. The pollen wall was smooth with very sparse cave-like ornamentation. Conclusion The anther structure and developmental characteristics of M. conifera were similar to those of other genera in Manglietia, but the structure of pollen sac, the mode of cytoplasm division and the arrangement of microspore tetrad were different. The abnormal phenomenon of microspore development mainly occurs in the tetrad stage, which is one of the reasons for the abortion the pollen and low seed setting rate of fruit.
Measurement of Species Richness of Forest Community by Maximum Tree Species Number
YANG Ai-ming, HUI Gang-ying
[Abstract](341) [FullText HTML](220) [PDF 560KB](10)
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Objective This paper attempts to address the forest species richness measurement by presenting a new measurement method to contribute to the forest biodiversity research. Method Monod model was adopted to express the species-area curve. The minimum forest community area and the maximum number of tree species were determined by mathematical means. Result The method applied in this study have been used to measure forest species richness in different climatic zones and the results further prove the fact that there are higher maximum species number and larger minimum community area in tropical forest communities and confirm the general rule that species richness decreased gradually with climatic zones from tropical to cold temperate zones. Conclusion The maximum number of tree species can accurately express the tree species richness of forest communities in different climatic zones, which overcomes the disadvantages of directly taking the number of tree species in survey areas of different sizes as the tree species richness in current studies.
Site Classification and Quality Evaluation of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis Plantation in Leiqiong Area, China
ZHANG Pei-jian, LU Wan-hong, XU Jian-min, LIN Zhi-feng, CHEN Ma-xing, LI Kong-sheng
[Abstract](83) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 793KB](1)
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Objective To study the site type and quality evaluation of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation in Leiqiong coastal area, so as to provide reference for site selection and production potential promotion of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation in Leiqiong area. Method 112 plots were set up in 1- to 18-years-old E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantations in Leizhou and Hainan. The growth indexes of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis were investigated, the site factors were recorded, and soil samples were collected to determine the soil physical and chemical properties. The quantitative theory I was used to establish the relationship model between site factors and the dominant high annual mean growth of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis, the site classification and quality evaluation of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation were carried out by k-means cluster analysis and correlation analysis. Result The multiple correlation coefficient between site factors (altitude, slope, soil depth, parent rock, pH value, soil texture, and soil density) and the height growth of the dominant tree was 0.712, which was highly significant (P < 0.01). Soil texture, parent rock and soil density were the main site factors affecting height growth of dominant trees of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis. According to these factors, E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation in Leiqiong area could be divided into 16 site types. According to the suitability and productivity, the site quality was evaluated and divided into four grades: high yield group, middle yield group, low yield group and poor yield group. The total proportion of the most suitable, more suitable and suitable grades was 91.89%, which indicated that the distribution of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation area in Leiqiong area was basically reasonable. The soil factors such as pH, organic matter, total phosphorus, total potassium and available potassium had significant effects on the growth of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation. Conclusion Most of the site conditions in Leiqiong area are suitable for the growth of E. urophylla × E. tereticornis. When planting E. urophylla × E. tereticornis plantation, it is suggested to choose the high yield group sites with acid loam soil and medium and low density. In afforestation and tending management, it is necessary to supplement phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in time to give full play to the production potential of forest land, timely replant the unsuitable site to improve the scientificity and rationality of afforestation.
Response of Soil Labile Organic Carbon to Thinning Intensity in Secondary Forest of Cyclobalanopsis glauca
QI Meng-juan, SHI Shuo-rong, JIANG Chun-qian, WANG Shu-ren, WANG Hui, WANG Jing-di
[Abstract](79) [FullText HTML](62) [PDF 660KB](2)
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Objective To study the response of soil labile organic carbon to thinning intensities in the secondary forest of Cyclobalanopsis glauca. Method Experiments were carried out to investigate the changes of SOC and its labile chemical components (MBC, DOC, POC and ROC) as well as their distribution ratio following a short term intensity adjustment of stand woods with 4 treatments: light (15%, LIT), moderate (30%, MIT), high (50%, HIT) and the contrast (unthinning, CK) in secondary forest of Cyclobalanopsis glauca. Result (1) Compared with the CK, the MIT and HIT significantly increased the SOC content, while LIT reduced the SOC content. (2) Thinning increased the soil MBC content and reduced the DOC content. The variation trend of soil POC and ROC contents under different thinning treatments was consistent with that of the SOC. (3) Under different thinning intensity, the distribution proportion for soil MBC and POC, DOC and ROC were 0.23%-0.54%, 0.40%-0.78%, 16.54%-47.30% and 6.46%-14.29%, the HLT significantly Increased the proportion of MBC allocation as well as POC and ROC and reduced the allocation proportion of DOC, showing that thinning treatments increased the proportion of unstable carbon and POC was more sensitive to the thinning processing. (4) Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between soil total organic carbon and labile organic carbon components, and labile organic carbon was positively correlated with soil water content and total nitrogen content, the carbon conversion of soil labile components was dependent on the change of total organic carbon, and it was easy to decompose under certain water and nitrogen conditions. Conclusion Thinning treatment has significant effects on the contents of soil organic carbon and its labile components, and HLT will significantly increase the contents of soil organic carbon and its labile components and accelerate the carbon cycle in the soil.
Cloning and Functional Analysis of JcBRL3 Gene from Jatropha curcas During Flower Development
CHEN Yu-qian, LEI Shi-kang, XU Gang
[Abstract](173) [FullText HTML](113) [PDF 1383KB](1)
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Objective To explore the function of BRL3 gene in flower development of Jatropha curcas. Method The full-length cDNA sequence of JcBRL3 gene was obtained by RACE PCR. The prokaryotic expression system was used to induce the expression of JcBRL3 gene. The expression products were identified by mass spectrometry using LC-MS/MS. The structure and basic physicochemical properties of the protein were analyzed by bioinformatics. The relative expression levels of JcBRL3 gene during the key stages of flower development of Jatropha curcas were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The overexpression JcBRL3 gene was transformed into tobacco by leaf plate method to analyze the influence of overexpression of JcBRL3 gene on the morphology and structure of tobacco flowers. Result The length of the open reading frame of JcBRL3 gene was 3 618 bp and encoded 1 205 amino acids. The results of mass spectrometry showed that the expression of this gene encoded a JcBRL3 protein. Protein structure analysis showed that JcBRL3 protein was a transmembrane protein with multiple leucine-rich repeats and conserved repeats: LxxLxLxxN/CxL. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of JcBRL3 in female flowers reached the highest level at mononuclear embryo sac stage, and in male flowers reached the highest level at pollen grain maturation stage, which was significantly higher than at any other stage. The morphological structure analysis of transgenic tobacco flower showed that the stigma position of transgenic tobacco was lower than that of anther, and the malformation rate of pollen grains was lower. Conclusion JcBRL3 protein is a LRR-RLK, which is a membrane protein. JcBRL3 gene may participate in the development process of female flower mononuclear embryo sac stage and pollen grain maturation of male flower and promote filament elongation in Jatropha curcas.
Comparison of Deep Learning and Traditional Models to Simulate the Height-DBH Relationship of Chinese Fir
LIANG Rui-ting, SUN Yu-jun, LI Yun
[Abstract](317) [FullText HTML](237) [PDF 819KB](4)
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Objective To explore a more efficient and low-biased tree height prediction method, improve the prediction accuracy of tree height, and to establish a multi-hidden layer neural network model of height- diameter is based on deep learning algorithm. Method Using a set of 2898 groups of tree height and diameter data from 34 Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) sample plots in Jiangle National Forest Farm of Fujian Province, 10 generalized height-diameter models were established based on traditional regression, and the model with the highest accuracy was selected to compare. At the same time, based on the deep learning algorithm of the H2O platform, 70 DLA models with different structures of tree height-diameter at breast height were established. Through analysis and comparison, the most suitable model structure was determined and compared with the traditional optimal model. Result The different height-diameter DLA models can describe the relationship between height and diameter of Chinese Fir well, whose R2 is above 0.84, which is higher than that of the best traditional model, and the RMSE and MAE are smaller than that of the traditional model. The most accurate DLA model structure contains 6 hidden layers, each with 340 neurons. Conclusion The height-diameter DLA model established based on deep learning has higher fitting accuracy and prediction accuracy than the traditional models, especially when predicting higher trees. It can be used to predict the height of Chinese Fir in study area.
Remote Sensing Monitoring and Restoration Evaluation of Ecological Environment in Shennongjia Area
QI Zhao, YU Xin-wen, TAN Bing-xiang, DENG Guang, YU Hang, SHEN Ming-tan
[Abstract](322) [FullText HTML](190) [PDF 1220KB](7)
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Objective To monitor and evaluate the change of ecological environment by using vegetation coverage change information in Shennongjia Forest Region, Shennongjia Nature Reserve and outside the reserve in the past two decades, combined with forest management activities and governance methods in different periods. Method Taking Shennongjia Forest Region, Shennongjia Nature Reserve and outside the reserve as the research area, using the three phases of Landsat remote sensing images in 1999, 2007 and 2019 to estimate the vegetation coverage of the study area based on dimidiate pixel model, and the method of difference analysis was used to calculate the vegetation coverage changes in each region. The results were evaluated and analyzed in conjunction with the changes in national policies and business activities in different period. Result From 1999 to 2019, the mean forest vegetation coverage (FVC) of Shennongjia Forest Region increased by 8.25%, the area with high FVC accounted for 97.50%. The vegetation coverage in protection zone has been better than that out of protection zone in the early stage, but in the late stage, the difference of vegetation coverage in and outside the protected zone is smaller. Conclusion In recent 20 years, the vegetation coverage of Shennongjia Forest Region has been on the trend of increasing, and the ecological environment has gradually become balanced, which indicates that the establishment of nature reserves, the natural forest protection project and the conversion of farmland to forest project are effective for the restoration of the regional ecological environment.
Differences in the Response of Radial Growth and Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency of Robinia pseudoacacia to Climatic Factors in Minquan of He'nan Province and Baishui of Shaanxi Province
ZHOU Jia, MENG Ping, ZHANG Jin-song, GUAN Chong-fan, SUN Shou-jia
[Abstract](187) [FullText HTML](121) [PDF 1182KB](10)
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Objective To analyze the response of radial growth and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of Robinia pseudoacacia to climate factors at different locations, and to determine the dominant factors affecting the growth and water use mechanism, so as to provide reference for the management of R. pseudoacacia plantations in China under climate change. Method The ring width chronologies were established in Minquan (MQ) of He'nan Province and Baishui (BS) of Shaanxi Province. The stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of tree ring was measured to calculate the WUEi. The differences in the response of R. pseudoacacia to climatic variation were analyzed with meteorological data. Result The plantations at the two locations were in similar age. The tree-ring width at BS presented a trend of initially increasing and thereafter decreasing with the increase of tree age, whereas at MQ, the tree-ring width showed a linear decreasing trend with tree age increase. The trends of basal area increment (BAI) of R. pseudoacacia at the two locations were similar, presenting a trend of initially increasing and thereafter decreasing with the increase of tree age. The δ13C value and WUEi of the trees in MQ were lower than those of BS. The Pearson correlation results showed that on a monthly scale, the STD index of R. pseudoacacia in the two locations was mainly positively correlated with the summer precipitation and drought index (SPEI) (P < 0.05), and the R. pseudoacacia in BS was significantly negatively correlated with the average precipitation and SPEI in November of the previous year (P < 0.05). The WUEi of trees in MQ was significantly positively correlated with the average temperature and maximum temperature in March and August (P < 0.05), while that of trees in BS was significantly positively correlated with the average temperature, maximum temperature and minimum temperature from March to April of the current year, and June to July of the previous and current year (P < 0.05). The path analysis model showed that on the annual scale, the STD index of R. pseudoacacia in BS had a significant positive effect on the average precipitation and average temperature (P < 0.05), while the R. pseudoacacia in MQ had no significant response to climate factors. The annual average temperature had significantly positive effect on WUEi of trees at both the locations (P < 0.05). Conclusion The average precipitation is the dominant factor influencing the radial growth of R. pseudoacacia at both the locations, and the sensitivity of growth of trees in BS is higher than that of trees in MQ. The average temperature is the dominant factor influencing WUEi at the two locations, and the WUEi of trees in BS is more sensitive to the temperature than that of trees in MQ.
Correlation between External Color and Quality of Mulched Phyllostachys violascens Shoots
HE Yu-you, CHEN Shuang-lin, GUO Zi-wu, XU Sen
[Abstract](154) [FullText HTML](100) [PDF 732KB](2)
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Objective To study the change of appearance color and the relationship between color and quality of Phyllostachys violascens shoots from mulched forest land in order to provide references for bamboo shoot production, management and quality evaluation. Method The color parameters, including lightness value (L), redness value (a), and yellowness value (b), in the lower, middle and upper parts of sheath and pulp were determined by colorimeter, and statistical analysis methods such as principal component analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, ANOVA and correlation analysis were carried out for these color parameters and morphological characters of mulched Ph. violascens shoots. Result The results showed that the L, a, and b of the middle and upper parts of bamboo sheaths were the main color parts and chromaticity factors of the bamboo shoot appearances. The color of bamboo shoots could be divided into three types (dark, medium and light) based on L × a × b clustering. The consistent rate of discriminant analysis and cluster analysis was 95.6%, and the accuracy of regression validation was 93.3%, showing highly feasible and well effective of the clustering method. There were significantly differences in the color of bamboo sheath and bamboo pulp among different color types of mulched Ph. violascens shoots, the same with the morphology of shoot and its sheath, the edible rate, etc., and a strong correlation existed between the internal and external products of the bamboo shoots. Bamboo shoots with lighter color had a well-proportioned yellowish-white appearance, bright white pulp, small and thin sheath, light-weighted stump, and the edible rate was higher by more than 11% compared with that of the darker ones. Conclusion The bamboo shoots of mulched Ph. violascens have abundant changes in appearance traits such as color, morphology, etc., and generally, light-colored bamboo shoots possess more appearance quality advantages.
Research of Climate-sensitive Stand Biomass Model for Larix gmelinii Plantation
HE Xiao, XU Qi-gang, LEI Xiang-dong
[Abstract](332) [FullText HTML](220) [PDF 717KB](12)
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Objective To Establish stand biomass model and analyze the effects of stand factors and climatic factors on stand biomass, so as to provide a model for the biomass estimation for regional scale. Method Taking Larix gmelinii plantations from 7 provinces in Northeast and North China as samples, the data from 8th national forest inventory of fixed sample plots were used to establish the basic stand biomass models of aboveground and total base on log-transformed by least square regression and robust regression, respectively. The climate variables were screened by principal component analysis and correlation analysis, and climate-sensitive stand biomass models (including aboveground biomass AGB and total biomass TGB) were established. The determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative root mean square error (rRMSE) were used to evaluate the models. The interpretation rate of each factor was divided into independent interpretation and covariant parts and the interpretation rate of different factors was quantified. Result (1) The form of the optimal basic model was the direct introduction of variables. The R2 of the optimal AGB and TGB models were 0.967 and 0.953, respectively, and the AGB were larger than the TGB biomass. The result of ordinary least square regression was similar to that of robust regression, and robust regression was slightly better than ordinary least square regression. The RMSE and rRMSE of the optimal model based on robust regression were lower than the corresponding ordinary least square regression for AGB by 0.046 t·hm−2 and 0.085%, respectively, and for TGB by 0.059 t·hm−2 and 0.081%, respectively. (2) The correlation coefficients between AGB, TGB and moisture-heat index (AHM) were −0.350 and −0.363, respectively. The climate-sensitive stand biomass model further improved the prediction effect of the model. The R2 of AGB increased by 0.41%, while RMSE and rRMSE decreased by 6.85%. The R2 of TGB increased by 0.63%, and the error statistics decreased by 6.79%. (3) The independent interpretations of stand factor of AGB and TGB were 87.37% and 82.32% respectively, the independent interpretations of climate factor were 0.40% and 0.60% respectively, and the covariant parts were 9.33% and 9.98%. The interpretation rate of stand factor was much higher than that of climate factor and the covariant part was large. Conclusion When the modeling data quality of the stand biomass model is high, there is little difference between the models established by robust regression and ordinary least square regression, but climate factors have a significant impact on stand biomass. It is necessary to establish a climate-sensitive stand biomass model to estimate the biomass.
Investigation and Analysis on Host Species and Their Resistance Substances to Bacterial Bark Canker of Populus × euramericana
LI Yong, CHANG Ju-pu, GUO Li-min, SUN Shang, YANG Xu-qi, PIAO Chun-gen
[Abstract](1406) [FullText HTML](934) [PDF 1005KB](6)
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Objective To investigate and analyze the host species of bacterial canker of Populus × euramericana, the disease-resistant varieties and the possible disease-resistant substances they contain. Method The host of the pathogen and the resistant varieties were determined by field investigation and inoculation tests. The content of active substances in the bark of disease-resistant and susceptible varieties was analyzed by HPLC. Result The hosts of bacterial pathogen of P. × euramericana canker are P. deltoides, P. × euramericana and Salix matsudana. P. × euramericana cl. 'Zhonglin 46', P. deltoides cl. '2025', P. × euramericana cv. '2001', P. deltoides cl '313', P. deltoides 'Zhonghe-1' and P. deltoides '16-09' were highly susceptible to the bark canker disease; P. × euramericana 'Yukang 1' and P. deltoides '16-10' were highly resistant varieties, P. deltoides '131', P. deltoides '03-59', P. deltoides '02-212' and P. deltoides '03-34' were resistant varieties. Hybrid willows and Salix babylonica are resistant to the pathogen, and Salix × aureo-pendula can be affected, but do not cause serious disease. The HPLC analysis showed that the contents of catechol, benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid in the bark of resistant and highly susceptible poplar varieties were significantly different. The catechol and catechin increased when the hosts were infected by Lonsdalea populi. Conclusion In this study, the host species of bacterial canker of P. × euramericana are determined, and resistant and highly susceptible poplar varieties are screened. It is showed the catechol and catechin are important compound for host to defense the pathogen infection. The results will be helpful to the control of the bacterial disease of poplar.
Effects of Castanopsis kawakamii Forest Litter on Seed Germination of Pinus massoniana
JIA Mei-hua, WANG Zhe, LIU Jin-fu, JIN Meng-ran, HE Zhong-sheng, XING Cong, SHI You-wen, SHEN Cai-xia
[Abstract](1970) [FullText HTML](1318) [PDF 935KB](15)
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Objective To understand the effect of litter of Castanopsis kawakamii natural forest on the competitive intensity of regeneration of Pinus massoniana. Method The allelopathic effects of litter extract of natural forest with different concentration and decomposition degree on seed germination and radicle growth of P. massoniana were studied. Result (1) The main factor affecting the germination of P. massoniana seeds was the degree of litter decomposition. Compared with the blank control, the litter of undecomposed layer and fully decomposed layer had no significant effect on the germination of P. massoniana seeds; the semi-decomposed layer inhibited the germination rate and germination index and promoted the germination potential. (2) The main factors affecting the growth of radicle were the concentration and action time of litter extract, and the effect of undecomposed layer on the whole radicle growth period of P. massoniana seeds was enhanced with the decrease of concentration, but increased with the decrease of concentration, and the promoting effect was the strongest at the concentration of 1 ≤ 100, and the effect of semi-decomposition layer was promoted by low concentration and high concentration, and the intermediate concentration was inhibited by the undecomposed layer. The fully decomposition layer showed promoting effect as a whole, and the promoting effect decreased with the decrease of concentration. (3) Correspondence analysis showed that different decomposition degree-concentration had no significant effect on seed germination of P. massoniana, but had significant correlation with radicle growth. Conclusion The result proves that the litter extract of different decomposition degree has a weak promoting or inhibiting effect on the seed germination of P. massoniana, promotes the growth of radicle at low concentration, and promotes the regeneration of P. massoniana, which will intensify the interspecific competition in the forest, and lead to the inhibition of the natural regeneration of C. kawakamii.
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2021, 34(5): -1--1.  
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2021, 34(5): 0-0.  
[Abstract](99) [FullText HTML](91) [PDF 270KB](15)
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Response of Stem Radial Growth of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis to Planting Density Based on Transcriptome Analysis
CHEN Mo, HE Sha-e, CHEN Shao-xiong, OUYANG Lin-nan, ZHANG Cheng, ZHANG Wei-yao
2021, 34(5): 1-12.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.001
[Abstract](679) [FullText HTML](404) [PDF 1026KB](29)
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Objective To identify the key genes of secondary xylem development response to planting density for a well understanding of molecular mechanism of planting density affecting radial growth of eucalypts. Method By a combination of PacBio Iso-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis, the differentially expressed transcriptomes of xylem cells in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis were identified under high and low planting densities. The tissues expression profiles of these key genes were analyzed via qRT-PCR. Result A total of 45 490 non-redundant full-length transcripts and 443 transcripts differentially expressed in xylem cells were obtained under high and low planting densities, and 60 transcripts encoding regulatory factors were obtained. Under low planting density, the diameters of trees increased significantly. The PXL2 and its interactional genes CUL1, T15D22.7 related to cell division, the MYB46, C3H14 with their downstream genes CesAs and LACs related to secondary wall regulation were preferentially expressed in the xylem cells. These genes might play key roles in the regulation of diameter growth under different densities. In addition, the NAC86 homologous genes involved in sieve element development and the inhibitor PTL homologous genes with dual functions in cambial cell proliferation and xylem differentiation were also up-regulated. They could promote the xylem development, which were different from the functions in herbaceous plants. The results of tissue expression analysis showed that PXL2, CUL1, T15D22.7, NAC86 and PTL were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, whereas MYB46, C3H14, CesA and LAC17 were predominantly expressed in xylem. Conclusion In this study, the candidate genes of xylem development related to planting density are identified and a model of molecular regulatory network that how the planting density affects radial growth of E. urophylla × E. grandis is proposed, which will benefit the intensive study of the molecular mechanism under different planting densities affecting radial growth for trees.
Variation in Fruit Traits of Eucommia ulmoides Germplasm Resources and Their Comprehensive Evaluation
DU Qing-xin, QING Jun, LIU Pan-feng, WANG Lu, DU Lan-ying, HE Feng, DU Hong-yan
2021, 34(5): 13-23.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.002
[Abstract](987) [FullText HTML](788) [PDF 653KB](25)
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Objective To provide theoretical basis and genetic materials for breeding and utilization of Eucommia ulmoides. Method Based on 331 E. ulmoides germplasm resources from 18 provinces of China, correlation analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis were conducted for evaluating and selecting superior germplasms with 19 fruit traits. Result The coefficient of variation of fruit traits was 4.64%-25.79% and the average coefficient of variation was 12.65%. Large variations were found in 100-fruit pericarp wrapping seed kernel weight (25.79%), 100-seed kernel weight (22.32%) and seed volume index (19.53%), while the linolenic acid (4.64%), oleic acid (5.78%) and fruit type index (8.04%) kept relatively stable. The diversity index ranged from 1.6572 to 2.0947, with an average of 2.0234. The 100-fruit weight showed a significant positive correlation with fruit volume index and 100-seed kernel weight, E. ulmoides rubber content significantly and positively correlated to 100-fruit pericarp wrapping seed kernel weight and fruit lateral diameter, while significantly and negatively correlated with crude fat content. Cluster analysis divided the germplasm resources into three groups: small (Ⅰ), medium (Ⅱ), and large (Ⅲ), different types of germplasms were preliminarily defined. Based on principal component analysis, the cumulative contribution rate of the first seven principal components were accounted for 85.169%, ten superior germplasms were selected for evaluation of oil, rubber and comprehensive utilization. Conclusion E. ulmoides germplasm shows high variation. The yield index has the largest variation, represented by 100-fruit pericarp wrapping seed kernel weight and 100-seed kernel weight, which provides possibility for the selection of superior germplasms. The optimal germplasms selected for different purpose provides an excellent germplasm basis for the breeding and comprehensive utilization of E. ulmoides.
Seed Dispersal Pattern and Progeny Genetic Diversity of Casuarina equisetifolia
LI Zhen, ZHANG Yong, WEI Yong-cheng, MENG Jing-xiang, ZHONG Chong-lu
2021, 34(5): 24-31.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.003
[Abstract](670) [FullText HTML](417) [PDF 641KB](24)
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Objective To reveal the seed dispersal pattern and compare the genetic diversity differences among natural regeneration population (progeny population), maternal population and seedling plantation population of Casuarina equisetifolia, and to provide reference data for artificially promoting natural regeneration of C. equisetifolia seedling plantation. Method Paternity analysis software Cervus 3.0 was used to determine the maternal parents of individuals in regeneration population, and to compare the genetic diversity of the three kinds of C. equisetifolia populations based on genotype data of progeny and candidate maternal parents obtained from 11 polymorphic SSR loci. Result (1) Totally 137 alleles (Na) were detected from 367 individual samples of maternal and progeny populations using 11 SSR markers, and the number of alleles per SSR locus varied from 6 to 24, with an average effective alleles (Ne) number of 4.95. The average expected heterozygosity (He), observed heterozygosity (Ho) and polymorphism information (PIC) were 0.75, 0.77 and 0.72 respectively. All the loci were categorized as moderate-high polymorphic loci. (2) At 80% confidence interval, the female parents of 148 progeny which accounted for 72.20% of the total progeny number were identified using genotype data obtained from 11 SSR markers. The seed effective dispersal distance of C. equisetifolia ranged from 10 m to130 m, with the mean dispersal distance of 71 m, which belongs to short-distance dispersal. The female parents were mainly concentrated in the northeast and east of the sampling plots, and their contribution to progeny reached up to 75.00%. (3) For the purpose of determining an even sample number, the genotype data of 84 individual samples were extracted respectively from the three populations for genetic diversity comparison. The results showed that the natural regeneration population presented slightly lower genetic diversity than the other two populations, but it still possessed relatively high genetic diversity based on its genetic parameters. Conclusion The seed dispersal of C. equisetifolia is of a short-distance dispersal, and the natural regeneration population can also maintain a high genetic diversity, which provides reference data for artificially promoting the natural regeneration of the seedling plantation of C. equisetifolia in coastal shelterbelts of Southern China.
Variation of Growth Dominance in Thinned Chinese Fir Stands with Different Planting Densities
WANG Han-chen, ZHANG Xiong-qing, ZHANG Jian-guo, QU Yan-cheng, JIANG Li
2021, 34(5): 32-38.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.004
[Abstract](868) [FullText HTML](547) [PDF 767KB](38)
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Objective The thinned Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) stands with different planting densities were used to explore the variation of growth dominance under different thinning treatments, so as to provide management strategies for cultivation and management of Chinese fir. Method The data for this study were sampled from Chinese fir plantation in Nianzhu Forest Farm, Fenxi city, Jiangxi Province. The linear mixed effect model was used to illustrate the growth dominance in relation to age, accumulated thinning intensity, living number of trees per hectare and the interaction of these variables. Result The growth dominance increased with accumulated thinning intensity, age, and living number of trees per hectare before or after the thinning. The negative value of growth dominance was not observed during the last observation. When the stands had the same living number of trees per hectare, the growth dominance increased with accumulated thinning intensity. Conclusion The sparse planting density and sparse density management make the growth dominance closer to the value 0, which is beneficial for balanced growth of all sized trees, and increasing the yield of larger trees. The dense planting density and sparse density management can not only harvest smaller trees, but also increase the growth dominance and promote the growth of larger trees with the increase of accumulated thinning intensity, as a result of harvesting the large size trees.
Identification of NLP Transcription Factors of Phyllostachys edulis and Their Expression Patterns in Response to Nitrogen
YUAN Ting-ting, ZHU Cheng-lei, LI Zi-yang, SONG Xin-zhang, GAO Zhi-min
2021, 34(5): 39-48.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.005
[Abstract](600) [FullText HTML](369) [PDF 1356KB](16)
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Objective To identify the NLP family members in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and lay a foundation for further study on the molecular regulation mechanism of these NLPs. Method The molecular characteristics of the NLP members in moso bamboo were identified and analyzed comprehensively by bioinformatics methods, and the expression patterns of the NLPs in response to nitrogen were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Result Ten NLP members (PeNLP1~PeNLP10) were identified from moso bamboo. The length of PeNLPs ranged from 714 aa to 963 aa, with the molecular weight of 77.41~105.08 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point ranged from 5.36 to 6.25. The prediction of subcellular localization showed that all PeNLPs were located in the nucleus except PeNLP9 in the chloroplast. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PeNLPs could be divided into 3 groups with 4, 2 and 4 members, respectively. All PeNLPs contained 4 introns, and there were some differences in the size and position of introns among different members. There were 6 collinear gene pairs in PeNLPs and 9 collinear gene pairs between PeNLPs and OsNLPs, and their Ka/Ks were all less than 1.0, indicating that they had undergone purification selection in evolution. Tissue specific analysis showed that some PeNLPs expressed in tissue-specific manner, while some PeNLPs expressed constitutively. The expression of PeNLPs was induced by nitrogen starvation, and that of PeNLP1 was significantly up-regulated within 1 hour, while those of other 5 PeNLPs were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.01). After 72 hours of nitrogen starvation, the seedlings were resupplied with nitrogen, and the expression levels of all PeNLPs were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) within 24 hours. Conclusion There are 10 members of NLP family identified in moso bamboo. There are some differences in molecular characteristics and tissue expression specificity of each member. The expression of PeNLPs can respond to nitrogen starvation rapidly, and it is significantly up-regulated in the process of nitrogen resupply after nitrogen starvation.
Comparative Study on Wood Characteristics of Cunninghamia lanceolata from Different Provenances
YAN Yao, LI Bing-jun, HE Zong-ming, LIU Yu-hui, LI Ming, YU Xin-tuo, MA Xiang-qing
2021, 34(5): 49-57.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.006
[Abstract](668) [FullText HTML](489) [PDF 659KB](16)
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Objective The study aims at comparing the differences of wood characteristics of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations from different provenances and analyzing their geographical variation regularity, so as to screen the better Chinese fir provenance. Method The first provenance test plantation of Chinese fir planted in 1958 was selected as the research object. Through investigating the growth of Chinese fir from different provenances, the intermediate trees were determined. The wood density, tracheid morphology, dry shrinkage, wet swelling, shear strength parallel to grain, compression strength parallel to grain, bending modulus of elasticity, bending capacity, impact property and hardness were determined and compared. The wood properties were evaluated by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Result Significant differences were found in wood characteristics among nine provenances of Chinese fir (P < 0.05). The dry shrinkage and wet swelling of wood increased with latitude, but there was no significant geographical variation regularity in other wood characteristics. The wood density of Anhui Xiuning provenance was significantly higher than that of other provenances (P < 0.05). The rank order of the tracheid length-width ratio is as follows: Guangdong Yu'nan provenance > Zhejiang Jinhua provenance > Fujian Nanping provenance > Sichuan Pengxian provenance > Sichuan Lushan provenance > Hubei Zhuxi provenance > Hunan Huitong provenance > Anhui Xiuning provenance > Guizhou Jianhe provenance. The ratio of tangential to radial shrinkage of Anhui Xiuning provenance and volume shrinkage coefficients of Guizhou Jianhe provenance were the lowest. The bending modulus of elasticity and bending capacity of Fujian Nanping provenance were the highest. The impact property and shear strength parallel to grain of Anhui Xiuning provenance were the highest. The compression strength parallel to the grain of Guangdong Yu'nan provenance was the highest, while the hardness of wood from Sichuan Lushan provenance was higher than that of other provenances. A significant correlation between wood characteristics index and wood density was significantly correlated with some wood characteristics index. According to the difference of wood properties of different provenances, nine provenances of Chinese fir were clustered into three categories: category I included Fujian Nanping provenance, Guangdong Yu'nan provenance, Sichuan Lushan provenance and Anhui Xiuning provenance, category II included Sichuan Pengxian provenance, Zhejiang Jinhua provenance, Hubei Zhuxi provenance and Hunan Huitong provenance, category III included the Guizhou Jianhe provenance. Using comprehensive analysis, the rank order for wood properties of the nine provenances is as follows: Anhui Xiuning provenance > Sichuan Lushan provenance > Fujian Nanping provenance > Guangdong Yu'nan provenance > Sichuan Pengxian provenance > Zhejiang Jinhua provenance > Hubei Zhuxi > Hunan Huitong provenance > Guizhou Jianhe provenance. Conclusion Geographical provenance has an essential influence on wood properties of Chinese fir to a certain extent.
Effects of Valsa sordida Infection on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Carbon-Water Metabolism in Populus alba var. pyramidalis
LI Jin-xin, ZHANG Yi-nan, MIAO Rui-fen, XING Jun-chao, LI Min, SHEN Wan-na, WANG Li, ZHAO Jia-ping
2021, 34(5): 58-68.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.007
[Abstract](566) [FullText HTML](400) [PDF 1402KB](11)
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Objective The photosynthetic response and water metabolism characteristics of P. alba var. pyramidalis leaves were studied, and the correlation between photosynthesis and water metabolism of poplar under pathogen infection was discussed in this study, so as to provide theoretical and experimental basis for the occurrence and control of the poplar Valsa canker disease. Method Using a girdling-inoculation system, we evaluated gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates in root and midday water potential of one-year poplar saplings with Valsa canker disease, and analyzed the relationship between transpiration rate, midday water potential and stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit. Result Compared with girdle control, Valsa canker significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (62.45% to 91.05%), stomatal conductance (64.19% to 87.43%), the maximum photochemical efficiency (19.13% to 42.79%), actual photochemical efficiency (4.04% to 69.93%) and electron transport rate (52.58% to 68.03%); also decreased the maximum net photosynthetic rate (76.94%), light saturation point (40.40%) and apparent quantum efficiency (46.09%), and increased dark respiration rate (82.14%) and light compensation point (242.42%). Valsa canker infection significantly decreased soluble sugar (35.06% to 44.50%, 20-30 day) and starch content (35.77% to 58.39%, 10-30 day) in roots. The fungi inhibited leaf transpiration rate (57.36% to 80.49%), water use efficiency (24.92% to 70.55%), and increased water vapor pressure deficit (13.59% to 33.65%) and midday water potential (39.74%, 20 day). The results of correlation analysis showed that transpiration rate was positively correlated with stomatal conductance and negatively correlated with water vapor pressure deficit, and there was no linear relationship between midday water potential and stomatal conductance and water vapor pressure deficit. Stomatal closure caused by Valsa canker infection was not related to leaf water status. Conclusion The main reasons for the decrease of net photosynthetic rate of poplar leaves were that leaf light energy conversion, photosynthetic electron transport and light energy utilization were hindered. Valsa infection did not cause water stress, even had some improvement. And had an important effect on the carbon accumulation of host roots, leading to the content of non-structural carbohydrates in roots was always at the initial level of infection.
Method and Application of Forest Fire Risk Assessment on Forest Stand Scale
ZONG Xue-zheng, TIAN Xiao-rui, LIU Chang
2021, 34(5): 69-78.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.008
[Abstract](537) [FullText HTML](451) [PDF 1086KB](23)
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Objective To study the forest fire risk assessment based on the burn probability, fire behavior, and potential fire impact. Method The Burn-P3 model was used to simulate the burn probability, potentialfire intensity, fire spread, and fire type in the Jiulongshan Forest Farm. The fire impact was calculated from ecology importance, vulnerability, and protection level of each forest stand. The exposure indicated the impacts of fire on urban and water resources. The forest fire risk assessment system on forest farm scale was established by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Result The results showed that the average burn probability was 0.0351 for the forest stand area, and the areas with high and very high burn probability accounted for 10.3% and 6.0%, respectively. The fire types are surface fire and intermitted crown fire. The average fire intensity and rate of spread were 2140.9 kW/m2 and 3.7 m/min, respectively. The areas with high and very high fire behavior index accounted for 17.8% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusion The ecological value and potential fire impact of the forests are relative high and the fire risk assessment will be helpful to enhance the fire management. The fire risk assessment shows that the areas with high and very high fire danger rating account for 31.8%. The deciduous coniferous forest and mixed forest in west, north, and south parts of the farm show the higher fire risk, fire management activities should be strengthened for the purpose of risk mitigation.
Expression of SPL-like Gene LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 in Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) During Somatic Embryogenesis
FAN Yan-ru, LAN Qian, HAN Su-ying, QI Li-wang, ZHANG Li-feng
2021, 34(5): 79-87.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.009
[Abstract](606) [FullText HTML](334) [PDF 9627KB](31)
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Objective To reveal LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 function during somatic embryogenesis, based on their molecular characteristics and expression patterns. Method The full-length cDNA sequences of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 were obtained by homologous cloning and RACE techniques. The amino acid sequences for known SPL family proteins were aligned using the ClustalX 2.1 software. The full-length protein sequence alignment was used to construct a phylogenetic tree according to the neighbor-joining method of the MEGAX program. Subcellular localization was performed by transient expression system of tobacco. The expression patterns of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 during somatic embryogenesis were detected by qRT-PCR. Result In this study, two SPL homologous genes, LaSPL2 and LaSPL3, were isolated from Japanese larch, which encoded 532 amino acids and 191 amino acids respectively. Further analyses revealed that LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 mRNA were targeted by miR156. The deduced amino acid sequences of the LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 harbored a highly conserved SBP domain. A transient expression analysis of the LaSPLs-GFP fusion proteins in tobacco leaf epidermal cells revealed that the LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 proteins were localized in the nucleus. Moreover, the expression of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 was down regulated by ABA during the early stage of somatic embryogenesis. With the further development of somatic embryos, the expression levels of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 peaked at 10 and 14 days, respectively. Subsequently, with the maturation of somatic embryos, their transcription levels decreased gradually to the lowest level at 42 days. Conclusion The effects of ABA removal on the expression of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 indicate that ABA might be the main factor in their down-regulation during the early stage of somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, the expression of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 will reach the peak at the early stage of somatic embryogenesis, implying it might encode an important regulator of early embryonic pattern formation. The sequence analysis and expression patterns of LaSPL2 and LaSPL3 indicated that they may be regulated by miR156 during somatic embryogenesis and play an important role in the maturation of somatic embryos.
Growth Difference and Early Evaluation and Selection of Young Picea abies Clones in Western Hubei
GAO Ben-wang, OUYANG Fang-qun, GAO Han, LI Wei, LEI Hua, TIAN Kai-chun, QI Song, WANG Jun-hui
2021, 34(5): 88-94.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.010
[Abstract](663) [FullText HTML](445) [PDF 607KB](19)
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Objective To select and breed elite trees for local quality reforestation by evaluating the genetic architecture of growth and branch relevant traits from 378 9-year-old Picea abies clones. Method P. abies clones were established using a completely random block design. The genetic variation of height, diameter at breast height, crown width, stem increment of the current year, number of branch in the first round were analyzed to select elite clones using EXCEL and package lme4. Result The results showed that the clones and the interaction effects between clones and block significantly affected the height, diameter at breast height, crown width, stem increment, and branch of P. abies. The genetic and phenotypic variation coefficient were 10.02%~20.38% and 31.36% ~48.36%. The repeatablilty of height, diameter at breast height, crown width, stem increment, branch and volume were 0.59~0.71. The phenotypic correlation and genetic correlation coefficients of height, stem increment, diameter at breast height, and crown width were 0.72 to 0.95, which were all significantly correlated to each other. 30 elite clones were chosen by tree height genetic value with the selected ratio 7.94%. The genetic gain of the height were 26.38%. Conclusion The height, stem increment, diameter at breast height, branches, and crown width of 378 P. abies clones have significant variation among clones, and are affected by the interactive effect between clones and environment. The clones also have obvious interaction with site, indicating that the most suitable clones should be selected according to site when implementing clonal forestry. 30 elite clones with good growth performance are chosen by their genetic values of tree height which may be used in the promotion and application of P. abies asexual reproduction.
Simulation of Operation for Forest Management Based on Body Action Interaction
ZHU Nian-fu, ZHANG Huai-qing, CUI Zhe-yu, YANG Ting-dong, WANG Lin-long, LIU Hua
2021, 34(5): 95-103.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.011
[Abstract](664) [FullText HTML](454) [PDF 1072KB](10)
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Objective In view of the complex and diverse types of forest management operations, this paper aims at solving the problems of poor interactivity, lack of natural and realistic interactive experience, and the difficulties to deal with frequent operations, and developing a set of interactive methods of forest management measures based on body action. Method A forest simulation scene based on the immersive virtual reality and visual simulation system CAVE2 was constructed as the interactive object, the management measures with strong interaction on the user side such as logging, pruning and replanting were selected, the limb movements in the operation process of forest management measures were analyzed, and the relative distance and angle changes between the management tools and users in the simulation scene were mapped with the limb actions. The interaction model of body movement was constructed to realize the implementation of limb action control management measures and the simulation of forest management. Result The interactive model of body movement constructed in this study was correctly mapped into forest management measures. The success rate of single operation was 86%, and the good rate of interactive evaluation was 91%. The combination of body movement and management tools facilitates the expansion of interactive demand of forest management simulation. Conclusion The simulation of forest management operation based on body action interaction can visually and intuitively show the operation process of forest management measures, which is helpful for the user's to further understand the forest management and improve the level of forest management assistant decision.
Effects of Stand Structure on Natural Regeneration of Quercus mongolica Forest in Mountainous Area of Eastern Liaoning Province
DONG Li-li, LIU Hong-min, ZHAO Ji-chuan, GAO Ying-xu, WANG Cheng-cheng, FAN Jun-gang
2021, 34(5): 104-110.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.012
[Abstract](662) [FullText HTML](452) [PDF 934KB](16)
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Objective The relationship between stand structure and undergrowth regeneration seedling was discussed to provide theoretical basis for artificial promotion of natural regeneration. Method Several Q. mongolica forests in mountainous area of eastern Liaoning province were taken as the research objects, the fitting model and Pearson correlation analysis were used, and the effect of stand spatial structure on natural regeneration of Q. mongolica was studied. Result (1) The forest stand base area had a significant effect on seedling density. With the increase of stand base area, the seedling density showed an increasing trend. When the base area reached 31 m2·hm−2, the increase of seedling density gradually slowed down. (2) There was a significant negative correlation between stand base area and seedling base diameter and seedling height (P < 0.05). (3) The relationship between stand competition index and density and seedling density was typical parabola. Compared with density, the effect of competition index on seedling density was more significant. (4) The spatial structure of stand had a significant effect on the species diversity of regenerated seedlings, the higher the degree of mixing, the more complex the vertical structure, and the higher the diversity of regeneration seedling species and Shannon-wiener. (5) Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the main variables influencing the total regeneration density were stand basal area, crowding and competition index. Conclusion Adjusting stand basal area, crowding and competition index are the effective ways to promote the natural regeneration and improve the species diversity of Q. mongolica forest.
Fire Performance Evaluation of Ten Main Afforestation Species in Mountainous Areas Around Xining, Qinghai Province
LI Hai-jia, ZHENG Shu-xia, SHAN Xiao-xiao, MA Yu-lin, SONG Zheng, REN Fei
2021, 34(5): 111-118.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.013
[Abstract](1190) [FullText HTML](896) [PDF 616KB](11)
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Objective To study the physicochemical properties and combustion characteristics of common tree species in Qinghai, and to evaluate the fire resistance of local tree species, so as to provide references for the selection of fire-resistant tree species in Qinghai. Method The fire-resistance indexes of 10 tree species were divided into fire-resistance factor fa and combustion performance factor fb (including the extrinsic factor fb1 and the intrinsic factor fb2) by factor analysis. Through Pearson correlation analysis and partial correlation analysis, the relationship between the 9 physicochemical properties of the 10 tree species and the fire prevention factors was obtained. Finally, the fire-resistant performance of the 10 tree species was ranked by comprehensive analysis. Result (1) There was a significant negative correlation between fb2 and the moisture content of leaves, between the burning point of bark and branches, and between fa, fb2 and the calorific value of leaves. (2) The results of partial correlation analysis showed that the moisture content of leaves had a significant negative correlation with fb2, and the fb2 had a significant negative correlation with fa. (3) The ranking similarity of fire performance of tree species based on the comprehensive values of combustion test and fire performance was 64%. Conclusion The comprehensive fire-resistance evaluation model of the 10 tree species is established, and the order of fire-resistance is obtained based on different weight systems as Atriplex canescens > Armeniaca sibirica > Rosa xanthina> Caragana korshinskii > Syringa oblata Lindl. > Elaeagnus angustifolia > Hippophaerha mnoides > Amygdalus triloba > Sabina vulgaris > Picea crassifolia. The results are of practical application and popularization to the fire-resistance of tree species in Xining and its surrounding areas.
Study of Foliar Fertilizer-B Absorption and Distribution in Poplar Saplings Using 10B Tracer
FU Xiao-xia, PENG Jun-dong, LENG Jing, CAI Xue, XIONG Ling-jun, OU Yong-bin
2021, 34(5): 119-124.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.014
[Abstract](573) [FullText HTML](342) [PDF 692KB](24)
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Objective The absorption, distribution and re-translocation of foliar boron fertilizer in poplar under different boron conditions were analyzed, in order to provide clues for the cultivation and management of poplar plantation. Method Populus alba var. pyramidalis Bunge saplings were sand cultured in greenhouse. Different concentrations of boric acid were added to the nutrient solution, and the lower mature leaves were fed with 10B-rich boric acid (H310BO3). The growth of poplar was recorded, and the boron content in different parts was determined. Result (1) Under sand culture condition with low boron concentration, the biomass and boron accumulation of plants decreased significantly, the boron concentration in upper leaves significantly decreased, and the proportion of boron allocated to young leaves significantly decreased also. (2) Application of foliar boron fertilizer (LB + F) could supplement the boron concentration in upper leaves, and reduce the changes of biomass and boron accumulation to a certain extent. Most of boron absorbed from foliar fertilizer was retained in the fertilized leaves, while 31.68%, 5.27% and 1.06% of absorbed foliar boron can be re-translocated to young leaves, roots, and stems. (3) In relative to normal boron concentration, application of foliar boron fertilizer (NB + F) could increase boron concentration in stem, but had no significant effect on boron concentration of roots and leaves and the biomass in different parts. Compared with LB + F, NB + F plant absorbed much less boron from foliar fertilizer, which was only 15.6% of the former. Conclusion Boron deficiency will result in a reduced boron allocation to young leaves in poplar, thus affects plant growth. The boron fertilizer absorbed by mature leaves could be re-translocated to other parts of the plant, especially the young leaves. The negative effect of rhizosphere boron deficiency on plant growth can be compensated by applying foliar boron fertilizer.
Interspecific Relationship of Primary Coastal Plant Communities in Pingtan Island
WANG Wei-yao, ZHENG Xin-xuan, WU Ya-hua, LI Yan-lin, GUAN Shi-min, NI Rong-wei, HUANG Liu-jing
2021, 34(5): 125-134.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.015
[Abstract](587) [FullText HTML](401) [PDF 1090KB](14)
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Objective To analyze the interspecific relationship of primary coastal plant communities in Pingtan Island and further understand the structural characteristics and coexistence mechanism of coastal plant communities. Method Based on community survey, the interspecific association and correlation analysis of dominant species (importance value ny) of plant community in four typical habitat types (bedrock shrub, hilly shrub, sandy meadow and bedrock grass) in Pingtan Island were carried out by the variance ratio method (VR), in Pingtan Island were carried out by the variance ratio method (lysis of dominant specie(CCA sorting), and the ecological species groups were divided. Result The coastal plant communities of the four habitats were significantly positively correlated (VR > 1, W > χ20.05(N)), and the community was relatively stable as a whole. The association and correlation between most species pairs were not significant (P > 0.05), and the interspecific independence was strong. Overall positive and negative association and correlation ratio was greater than 1, showing a positive association and positive correlation trend. Conclusion Spearman rank correlation coefficient test has higher significance rate of interspecific correlation and higher sensitivity than χpearman rank correlation coefficient test has higher significance racan be divided into 4 ecological species groups according to the results of R language CCA sorting and interspecific correlation analysis. These 4 groups correspond to 4 habitats. In the restoration and protection of native coastal vegetation in Pingtan Island, the interspecific relationship and environmental adaptability of species should be fully considered, and the appropriate ecological species groups should be selected for planting. In the bedrock habitat with high soil salinity, the ecological species group I: Peucedanum japonicum, Crepidiastrum lanceolatum, Vitex trifolia, etc. The ecological species group II is suitable for planting in the low mountains and hills with large soil volume, high altitude and high rock exposure rate: Eurya emarginata, Elaeagnus pungens, Ficus pumila, etc. On the coastline of sandy soil with low soil salinity and loose soil, ecological species group III is selected for planting: Oenothera drummondii, Calystegia soldanella, Glehnia littoralis, etc. In the soil with relatively high water content, ecological species IV is selected for planting: Berchemia sinica, Heteropappus ciliosus, Lycoris radiata, etc.
Cloning and Expression Pattern of Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein Genes of Tropidothorax elegans
SONG Yue-qin, BAI Xiao-jun, CHEN Qing-xiao, LÜ Qi-hui, Sun Hui-zhong
2021, 34(5): 135-141.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.016
[Abstract](562) [FullText HTML](352) [PDF 22435KB](6)
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Objective To study the sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) in Tropidothorax elegans. Method The SNMP genes were cloned by PCR, and the expression of these genes were analyzed by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Result Two SNMPs genes of T. elegans, named as TeleSNMP1 and TeleSNMP2, were cloned and identified for the first time by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the TeleSNMP1 encoding area was 1 497 bp in length, encoding 498 aa. The TeleSNMP2 encoding area was 1 686 bp in length, encoding 561 aa. The isoelectric points of these two genes were 8.26 and 7.05, respectively. Homology analysis showed that the consistency of SNMPs genes in insects of the same order was high, while the consistency of different order was low, and the sequence consistency between TeleSNMP1 and TeleSNMP2 was extremely low. The evolutionary tree results also showed that the evolutionary relationship of SNMPs genes in insects of the same order was rather close. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that TeleSNMP1 was antennae-biased, whereas TeleSNMP2 was expressed in female and male antennae but was also expressed in nonantennal tissues. Conclusion The results provide a useful reference for future studies on the function of the T. elegans SNMPs gene.
Effects of Phosphorus Addition and Inoculation of Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Growth and Phosphorus Utilization of Masson Pine Container Seedlings from Different Families
HUANG Sheng-yi, WU Tong-gui, CHU Xiu-li, WANG Bin, WANG Xiu-hua, ZHANG Dong-bei, ZHOU Zhi-chun
2021, 34(5): 142-151.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.017
[Abstract](590) [FullText HTML](411) [PDF 676KB](12)
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Objective To study the differences of growth and phosphorus absorption and utilization of second-generation families of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) container seedlings with different genetic background under the interaction of different phosphorus addition amount and inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi so as to provide guidance for precise cultivation of high-quality P. massoniana container seedlings,. Method Three second-generation families of P. massoniana with different genetic backgrounds were used as materials to observe and analyze the differences in growth and phosphorus utilization of different families of P. massoniana under two phosphorus addition levels (low P: 50 g·m−3 substrate, high P: 900 g·m−3 substrate) in two plots inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and without inoculation. Result The results showed that phosphorus addition promoted the growth, P content and P uptake in all organs of P. massoniana container seedlings from three families. The seeding height, caliper, whole plant dry matter, whole plant P content and P uptake of container seedlings with high P level were 8.70%, 21.73%, 61.62%, 30.25% and 112.08% higher than those with low P level, while the height-diameter ratio and root-shoot ratio were 10.62% and 19.82% lower. After inoculation, the seedling height, caliper, whole plant dry matter and whole plant P uptake increased by 2.34%, 6.40%, 20.69% and 18.08%, while the height-diameter ratio, root-shoot ratio and whole plant P content decreased by 4.09%, 3.87% and 3.23% respectively. Mycorrhizal fungi could reduce the differences of caliper and root-shoot ratio among different phosphorus addition levels, and the growth differences among families. The interaction of phosphorus addition and mycorrhizal fungi significantly promoted the P uptake of container seedlings stem and root, and mycorrhizal fungi promoted the growth of P. massoniana container seedlings more significantly at high P levels. The growth responses of different families to different phosphorus addition and mycorrhizal treatments were different. The effect of phosphorus addition on family No. 15 was the most significant, and that of mycorrhizal inoculation on family No. 53 was the most significant. Family No.37 was more balanced. Conclusion The effect of phosphorus addition is more obvious than that of families and mycorrhizal treatments. In order to further improve the cultivation level of P. massoniana container seedlings, reasonable fertilization should be carried out according to the different responses of three families to phosphorus fertilizer, and the P utilization efficiency can be improved by inoculating mycorrhizal fungi.
Sphaerolecanium prunastri (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), A New Pest in Wild Fruit Forests, Xinjiang
WANG Yu-li, LYU Zhao-zhi, LINGHU Wei, GAO Gui-zhen
2021, 34(5): 152-158.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.018
[Abstract](685) [FullText HTML](528) [PDF 962KB](10)
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Objective Sphaerolecanium prunastri (Boyer de Fonscolombe) broke out in wild fruit forests in Xinjiang, which caused great harm to the survival of wild apricot and the ecological environment of wild fruit forests. This paper tries to clarify the biological characteristics of S. prunastri in order to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of S. prunastri in wild apricot forest in Xinjiang, China. Method From June 2019 to June 2020, the morphological characteristics, life history and habits of S. prunastri were studied by laboratory observation and field survey in Gongliu and Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. Result S. prunastri was sexual dimorphism insect. The female adult was hemispherical and the male has wings. S. prunastri had one generation a year and overwintered as second instar nymphs mainly on the branches. The overwintering mortality was more than 65%. The female adult laid 527 eggs averagely. The estimated lower developmental threshold was 9.50 ℃, and effective accumulated temperature of 81.17 degree-day were required for development from the egg to first instar. The female to male ratio was 1.02: 1. There was no significant difference in the number of S. prunastri in the four directions of the wild apricot tree crown. S. prunastri was mainly distributed on the shade side of three-year-old branches. Conclusion The best time for prevention and control of S. prunastri in Xinjiang wild fruit forests is the post-hibernant and the enlargement period of 2nd-instar overwintering nymphs (late March to late April) and the dispersal period of 1st-instar nymphs (early to middle June). It is suggested to carry out comprehensive control of S. prunastri in this period.
Species Composition and Diversity of Betula alnoides Natural Forests at Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province
LUO Dan, WANG Chun-sheng, DAO Bao-hui, ZHAO Zhi-gang, GUO Jun-jie, ZENG Jie
2021, 34(5): 159-167.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.019
[Abstract](599) [FullText HTML](391) [PDF 697KB](12)
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Objective Species composition and diversity characteristics of Betula alnoides natural forests were investigated to provide evidences for biodiversity conservation of B. alnoides natural forests as well as close-to-nature management of B. alnoides plantation. Method Plots with total areas of 10, 000 m2 and 5, 000 m2 were set up to investigate the species diversity in the forests at Pailuo Mountain, Ruili (PLS) and Huatao Ridge, Mangshi (HTL), Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, respectively. The former stand was naturally regenerated after clear-cutting in 1958, while the other was naturally regenerated on abandoned land after slash-and burn cultivation in 1967. The Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were used to analyze the species composition and diversity of tree, shrub and herb layers. The diameter class distributions were analyzed for the whole stand and the main tree species with importance value above 5.00%. Result There was no absolute dominant species in PLS stand, and the most important species in PLS was Machilus pingii (14.76%) and B. alnoides (9.55%). The species with the largest important value in HTL stands was B. alnoides (26.47%), which was absolutely dominant in the stand. The species richness (except herb layer), Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index in each layer of PLS stand were higher than those of HTL stands, but the species dominance was lower in PLS stands. The species distribution was more evenly distributed in PLS stand. Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index were the highest in shrub layer, while the highest species richness was observed in tree layer. The diameter-class structures of both the stands were inverted J-shaped, and the main tree species with important value above 5.00% were concentrated in the middle and small sized classes except B. alnoides which was in large and middle-sized classes. Conclusion The PLS stand is much closer to late succession stage than HTL stand, and they all belong to stable coenotypes. These findings could provide evidences and technical support for conservation of B. alnoides natural forest and close-to-nature transformation and management of B. alnoides pure plantation.
Influence of IAA and NAA on Cutting Propagation of Dalbergia odorifera
XU Shan-shan, LIU Xiao-jin, XU Da-ping, HONG Zhou, GUO Jun-yu, YANG Zeng-jiang
2021, 34(5): 168-176.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.020
[Abstract](685) [FullText HTML](448) [PDF 660KB](19)
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Objective To identify the influence of IAA and NAA on the rooting and shooting ability of Dalbergia odorifera, and provide theoretical and technical support for the rapid propagation and cultivation of D. odorifera. Method Semi-lignified branches from 2-year-old D. odorifera seedlings were collected as the propagation materials. An orthogonal experiment was designed according to the concentrations of IAA and NAA and the soaking time. The effects of 16 treatments on rooting and shooting parameters of D. odorifera were investigated 80 days after cutting, and the subordinate function values method and principal component analysis were applied to comprehensively evaluate the rooting effects. Result The concentrations of IAA and NAA, the soaking time, the interaction between IAA and NAA concentration, and the interactions between IAA concentration and soaking time showed great impacts on rooting percentage, and statistical differences were also observed in terms of length of roots, amount of roots, surface and volume of root system. Under certain concentration range, the rooting percentage increased as the concentration of IAA increased, while decreased as the concentration of NAA increased. The principal component analysis and subordinate function values were used to comprehensively evaluated the cutting propagation performance. It is showed that the corresponding rooting percentages of the top 4 treatments were 96.10%, 97.66%, 96.10% and 96.88%, respectively. Conclusion Considering the rooting percentage, root and shoot development synthetically, it is suggested to apply 500 mg·L−1 IAA + 750 mg·L−1 NAA + 1-minute soaking or 750 mg·L−1 IAA + 750 mg·L−1 NAA + 10-second soaking or 250 mg·L−1 IAA + 1-minute soaking or 500 mg·L−1 IAA + 500 mg·L−1 NAA + 10-second soaking in production practice to carry out cutting propagation of D. odorifera.
Analysis of Codon Usage in the Chloroplast Genome of Cypripedium calceolus
DING Rui, HU Bing, ZONG Xiao-yan, HAN Chen-yang, ZHANG Li-jie, CHEN Xu-hui
2021, 34(5): 177-185.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.021
[Abstract](546) [FullText HTML](426) [PDF 721KB](12)
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Objective To analyze the codon usage bias of Cypripedium calceolus chloroplast genome, and identify the main factors influencing codon usage bias of this species in order to provide reference for the chloroplast genomics research of Orchidaceae species. Method Downloading the complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. calceolus and screening the protein coding sequences, the EMBOSS online program was used to calculate the GC content of each gene and codon, and the software CondonW was used to calculate the length of amino acid (LAA), effective number of codon (ENC), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), frequency of optimal codons (FOP) and the acid base content of the third nucleoside of each gene codon. The software SPSS was used to analyze the correlation among each index, and software Origin was used to plot. Result The third codon position of C. calceolus chloroplast genome sequence was rich in A and T, and the GC3 content was only 29%. The ENC values varied from 37.92 to 61.00, indicating a relatively weak codon usage bias. The correlation between the number of effective codons and GC3 showed an extremely significant level. There were 34 codons with relative synonymous codon usage greater than 1 and 29 codons ending with A and U. Analysis of neutral plot, ENC-plot and PR2-plot showed that the preference of C. calceolus chloroplast genome codons was mainly influenced by natural selection. Correspondence analysis showed a similar pattern of codon usage bias of the genes encoding photosynthetic system proteins, while other types of genes were quite different. Sixteen codons were finally determined as the optimal codons. Conclusion This study confirms that natural selection is the main factor affecting codon usage bias of C. calceolus chloroplast genome. The optimal codon of this species is screened. The results can provide a reference for the phylogeny and chloroplast genome codon evolution of Orchidaceae.
Identification of the Pathogen Causing Anthracnose on Ailanthus altissima in Henan Province, China
WANG Shu-he, ZHANG Jia-zheng, HE Jin-he
2021, 34(5): 186-192.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2021.005.022
[Abstract](575) [FullText HTML](373) [PDF 661KB](14)
Abstract:
Objective The aim of the study is to identify the pathogen causing leaf anthracnose on Ailanthus altissima in the Tianchishan National Forest Park in Songxian County of He'nan Province, China, so as to provide references for the prevention and control of the disease. Method Pathogenic fungi were isolated from diseased leaves of A. altissima using tissue isolation methods. The isolates were purified in potato dextrose agar (PDA) by single spore culture. Species identifications for the pathogens causing anthracnose on A. altissima were carried out using morphological characterization, phylogenetic analysis, and pathogenicity assays. Result A total of 11 Colletotrichum spp. isolates were recovered from the samples by tissue isolation methods. Colonies were white to gray in color with cottony mycelia and darker underneath on PDA, conidia cylindrical, hyaline, smooth-walled, aseptate. Two representative isolates (CH-1 and CH-3) were selected for pathogenicity tests and phylogenetic analyses. Both the isolates CH-1 and CH-3 were able to infect A. altissima in wounded inoculations. A multi-locus phylogeny was established based on five genomic loci ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1 and GAPDH. The phylogenetic tree showed that the isolates CH-1 and CH-3 from A. altissima clustered into a clade with high confidence (bootstrap value, BP=99%), together with Colletotrichum fructicola. Conclusion Based upon morphological characteristics and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis, the isolates CH-1 and CH-3 were identified as C. fructicola. This study represents the first report of C. fructicola on A. altissima in China.
Effect of Thinning on Growth and Timber Outturn in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation
XU Jin-liang, MAO Yu-ming, ZHENG Cheng-zhong, FAN Rong-de, ZHOU Shi-shui, CHEN Yong-hui, CHENG Xiang-rong, YU Mu-kui
2014, 27(1): 99-107.  
[Abstract](2415) [PDF 992KB](1419)
Advances in Tissue Culture Techniques of Trees and the Problems Existed
HUANG Lie-jian, WANG Hong
2016, 29(3): 464-471.  
[Abstract](2155) [PDF 914KB](1599)
Comparison on Osmotica Accumulation of Different Salt-tolerant Plants under Salt Stress
CHENG Tie-long, LI Huan-yong, WU Hai-wen, LIU Zheng-xiang, WU xiang, YANG Sheng, ZHANG Hua-xin, YANG Xiu-yan
2015, 28(6): 826-832.  
[Abstract](2284) [PDF 1605KB](1105)
On the Maintenance of Long-term Productivity of Plantation in China
SHENG Wei-tong
2018, 31(1): 1-14.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.01.001
[Abstract](2813) [FullText HTML](738) [PDF 1291KB](923)
Research Progress of Structure-based Forest Management
HUI Gang-ying, HU Yan-bo, ZHAO Zhong-hua
2018, 31(1): 85-93.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2018.01.011
[Abstract](3696) [FullText HTML](1182) [PDF 2383KB](734)
Quantitative Analysis of Forest Spatial Structure and Optimal Species Composition for the Main Forest Types in Daxing'anling, Northeast China
DONG Ling-bo, LIU Zhao-gang, LI Feng-ri, JIANG Lei
2014, 27(6): 734-740.  
[Abstract](2545) [PDF 1059KB](1158)
Growth and Structure Differentiation of Phoebe bournei Plantation with Different Sites and Modes of Afforestation
CHU Xiu-li, LIU Qing-hua, FAN Hui-hua, WANG Sheng-hua, CHEN Liu-ying, ZHOU Zhi-chun
2014, 27(4): 445-453.  
[Abstract](2368) [PDF 1443KB](1362)
Studies on Seedling Photosynthetic Characteristics of Five Tree Species under Drought Stress
HAN Bo, LI Zhi-yong, GUO Hao, ZHANG Jun-pei
2014, 27(1): 92-98.  
[Abstract](2215) [PDF 1078KB](1254)
Stoichiometry Characterization of Soil C, N and P of Pinus massoniana Plantations at Different Age Stages
LEI Li-qun, LU Li-hua, NONG You, MING An-gang, LIU Shi-ling, HE Yuan
2017, 30(6): 954-960.   doi: 10.13275/j.cnki.lykxyj.2017.06.010
[Abstract](1997) [PDF 1293KB](740)
Effect of Close-to-Nature Management on Species Diversity in a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation
SUN Dong-jing, WEN Yuan-guang, LUO Ying-hua, LI Xiao-qiong, ZHANG Wan-xing, MING An-gang
2015, 28(2): 202-208.  
[Abstract](2121) [PDF 1225KB](1299)

Journal Information

Publication name:林业科学研究 Forest Research

Editor:ZHANG Shou-gong

Sponsors by:Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences

Address:Chinese Academy of Forestry after Beijing Wanshou Mountain

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ISSN 1001-1498

CN 11-1221/S

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