2005 Vol. 18, No. 1
The diseased shoots of three jujube (Ziziphus zizyphus) cultivars,Pozao from Tang County,Hebei Province,Lizao from Lingyuan County,Liaoning Province and Bianhesuanzao from Puyang,Henan Province,respectively infected with different isolates of jujube witches'broom (JWB)-phytoplasmas as well as paulownia (Paulownia spp.) witches'broom(PWB)-phytoplasma from Shandong,Jiangxi Provinces and Beijing were collected and cultured in vitro on various media.The in vitro cultured and infected plantlets displayed typical witches' broom symptoms,except for the hypertrophy and whiting of axillary and top buds often associated with some paulownia plantlets with PWB-phytoplasma.Plantlets with JWB-phytoplasma Pozao (jujube) isolate (Ft) and Bianhesuanzao (jujube) isolate (HPD) were subcultured on MS medium without addition of any hormone and grew well all along with witches' broom symptom for more than one year,while the Lizao (jujube) isolate (LD) showed obvious decline symptoms such as leaf yellows,dwarf and dieback besides ordinary witches'broom. PWB-phytoplasma isolates had been maintained in the laboratory in variety of paulownia tissue-cultured plantlets for over 10 years and no pathogenic mutation associated with these phytoplasma isolates was detected.When Ft scions with JWB-phytoplsams were grafted on the healthy jujube stocks,certain percentages of stocks of Dongzao (jujube) (DJ) and Pozao (W14) cultivars became infected and appeared typical witches' broom symptoms,while there was no typical symptom on unsuccessful-grafting stocks.The ZD scion with PWB-phytoplasma C85-028D isolate was also used to graft-transmit the phytoplasma into three paulownia clones,C125,TY2T and MB33,consequently causing typical witches'broom symptoms.The existence of both JWB- and PWB-phytoplasmas in diseased plantlets and graft-transmitted stocks was certified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using phytoplasmal 16SrDNA universe primer pairs,R16mF2/R2.The relative concentrations of both phytoplasmas in the phloems of JWB and PWB plantlets were also evaluated by DAPI staining fluorescence microscopy.The results showed that Ft and graft-infected DJ had relative more strong JWB-phytoplasma fluorescence emitted from the phloem than that of HPD and LD,but still rather lower than that of paulownia plantlets infected with PWB-phytoplasma; whereas less phytoplasmas and less number of phloem with JWB-phytoplasmas were detected in W14 stock already with witches'broom symptom which coincided with its relatively high resistance to JWB-phytoplasma.There were no phytoplasma fluorescence observed in the healthy plantlet as well as the stock grafted unsuccessfully.
With Li-Cor6200 photosynthesis determination system and Li-Cor1600 steady pore-meter,the quantitative relationship between soil water content (SWC) and net photosynthesis rate,transpiration rate (Tr),water use efficiency,stomatic conductance (gs),intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) in leaves of nine-year-old goldspur apple (Malus pumila cv. Goldspur) trees were studied,in semi-arid area on Loess hilly-gully region. Based on this, the soil water availability and its productivity of test apple orchard were graded and evaluated. The results showed that the soil relative content less than 21.5% belonged to "non-available water"; in the range of 21.5%～46.5%,"low productivity and low efficiency water";46.5%～65.0%,"middle productivity and high efficiency water";65.0%～75.0%,"high productivity and middle efficiency water";75.0%～79.0%,"middle productivity and low efficiency water";and more than 79.0%,"low productivity and low efficiency water".According to the essential aim of agriculture and forestry production to enhance water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid regions, the regulation criterion of soil relative content of apple orchard was ascertained as suitable range 46.5%～65.0% (in the range of "middle productivity and high efficiency water") and the optimum 65.0% that belonged to "high productivity and high efficiency water".
The objective of this study was to analyze the economic benefit of rattan plantation and to determine the impact of harvesting regimes and management technique on economic return in the forestland.Data were obtained from the permanent plots established in Calamus simplicifolius plantation where 5 different harvesting regimes were set,including first harvesting at 5,6,7,8,9 years and harvesting intervals of 8,7,6,5,4 years respectively.In addition,field investigation on the upper support trees,20-year-old Gmelina arborea mixed with C.simplicifolius was made and 2 temporary plots nearby were also established in pure stands to know the effect of rattan planting on the growth and yield of support trees.Harvesting regimes had eminent effect on economics of 13-year-old rattan plantation.Under the regime of first harvesting at 9 years with 4 years'interval afterward,optimal economic benefit was gained in C.simplicifolius plantation,being 20 255 yuan·hm-2,20.08%,1.38 in term of net present value (NPV),internal return rate (IRR) and the ratio of benefit to cost (B/C).Rattans had unfavorable effect on the growth and yield of upper trees.As a result,the net income and NPV from G.arborea plantation interplanted with C.simplicifolius decreased by 4 000 yuan·hm-2 and 1 500 yuan·hm-2 respectively over those from pure stand.However,the economic loss in the upper stand could be compensated with the monetary gain from rattan plantation generating considerable economic benefit.The level of economic gain and the increment of NPV by interplanting G.arborea with C.simplicifolius under various harvesting regimes were estimated to range from 12.49% to 91.10% and 706 yuan·hm-2 to 5 145 yuan·hm-2.
The pruning of 6 year-old Fokienia hodginsii plantation in Nanjing State-owned Forest Farm of Fujian were studied.The results showed that:Stem pruning accelerated the growth and biomass accumulation of Fokienia hodginsii plantation.4 years after stem pruning,the height,DBH,biomass and stem volume of single tree,growth rate of stem volume and stem volume accumulation increased by 10.5%～20.9%,2.6%～8.1%,14.9%～37.2%, 18.2%～44.3%, 18.74%～39.44% and 6.84～16.68 (m3·hm-2) respectively.The pruning intensity of 50% in all treatment had the best accelerating effect. Stem pruning reduced the acuminate intensity and increased the chubbiness intensity, the value of H/D increased by 7.0%～14.1% compared with CK;The pruning start age of 6 year-old was most effective in reducing acuminate intensity,increasing growth rate of stem volume and accelerating concrescence,the secondly effective treatment was 5 year-old,the worst was 11 year-old.In the condition of 6 year-old pruning start age and 50% pruning intensity,the holding density of 1 200 plant.hm-2 was most effective in increasing height,DBH, biomass and stem volume of single tree,and growth rate of stem volume. The pruning intensity and alternation time can be decided by relative growth curve of side branch.
The seedling provenances trial of Schima superba containing 37 seedlots collected from 6 provinces (zone) was conducted in Dexing, Anfu and Xinfeng,Jiangxi Province.The results showed there were very significant differences in seedling height, ground diamater and biomass of Schima superba provenances,and broad heritability of seedling traits were high.The seedling height growth of Schima superba provenances displayed quick growing period in August and September,height increment was more than 50% of total height increment.The seedling height and ground diamater were negatively related to latitude of the seedlots.5 quick-growing provenances were selected among seedlings, they are Kaiping, Yangshan,Shaoguan, Hua'an and Shangyou.
Study on classification of forest landscape based on data of multi-spectrum remote-sensing of Landsat TM and terrestrial inventory was conducted.On Jingouling State Forest Farm of Wangqing Forestry Bureau in Jilin Province,ERDAS Imagine and MapInfo were used as technical supporting systems for data processing.Supervised classification of remote-sensing image supported by terrestrial sampling plots and associated with inventory data of forest management was used in the study.As results,the distribution map of forest landscape of the study area and its spatial structure analysis and evaluation were produced. These results served as useful information for further planning and design of forest landscape development in the study region.
Calli were induced from immature embryos of Parthenocissus tricuspidata which were cultured in improved B5 medium supplemented with 2.0 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0～4 mg·L-1 2,4-D. The inducing frequency of callus ranged from 0 to 100%.Calli were subcultured in the same base medium with various combinations of 6-BA and 2,4-D. Somatic embryoids occurred from improved B5 medium without any regulators. Results showed that the suitable mediums for embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of Parthenocissus tricuspidata were:(1)callus inducement:improved B5+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-1;(2) subculture medium:improved B5+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+2,4-D 1.0 mg·L-1;(3)embryogenic and germination medium:improved B5.The embryogenic frequency was 33%,the germination frequency of embryoids was 53%,and the survival ratio after transplant was 85%. Embryoides occurred from exterior of callus and developed through the stages of globular embryoid,heart shaped embryoid,tin fish-shaped embryoid and cotyledon differentiation stage embryoid.
Taking thirty-two single-cross and eighteen multi-parents hybridization of paulownia in twelve years as trial material,genetic and variation of many characters were studied.The results were as follows:all these characters demonstrate embulent variations among different crosses, and many of their difference reached a high level, heredity ability of main quantitative characters all reached a high level such as length of anthotaxy, width of anthotaxy, angle of anthotaxy tresses, length of flower stalk, length of flower, width of flower, length of fruit, width of fruit, and parents-excessed heredity was discovered on angle of anthotaxy tresses.Split degree of calyces and length of bennet were controlled by a few alleles,and shallow was dominant to deep in split degree of calyces and long was dominant to short in length of bennet. In the aspect of flower color,white were homogeneous unit in gene,and purple was incomplete dominant to white. The shape of anthotaxy,density and size of spot in crown,and shape of fruit are all qualitative characters and controlled by several genes,they had a great change in exhibition along with gene's re-organization and chang during the process of cross. Principal component analysis indicated that angle of anthotaxy tresses,length of anthotaxy,width of anthotaxy could act as the first principal component,and thickness of fruit may act as the second principal component.Correlation analysis showed that many of these characters were greatly correlated,so when selection for certain aims the correlation of correlated character should be concerned.
On the conditions of 20 ℃,the various intensities of photosynthesis active radiation (PAR) and different CO2 concentrations(),the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis and water physio-ecology of young Macrocarpium officinalis on the convering tree land from farming were studied. The results showed that:(1)under 400 μmol·mol-1·s-1,the regression equation between net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and PAR is Pn=-8×10-6PAR2+0.022 2PAR+1.950 9 with a regression coefficient(r)=0.952 4(n=33); the critical points of light saturation and light compensation,apparent quantum yield (AQY) is 1 387.5 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 17.4 μmol·m-2·s-1,0.066 3 mol·mol-1 respectively.The regressive equation between transpiration (Tr) and PAR is Tr=0.001 3 PAR+5.637 with r= 0.983 0(n=33).The relationship between water utilization efficiency (WUE) and PAR showed parachute trends with r=0.922 2(n=33).(2)At 1 200 μmol·m-2·s-1 PAR,the regressive equation between Pn and is Pn=-2×10-52+0.050 2-2.965 6 and r is close to 1.0(n=33).CO2 saturation point,compensation point and carboxylation efficiency is 1 255 μmol·m-2·s-1,60.5 μmol·m-2·s-1,and 0.040 6 respectively;Tr showed linely down trend with decreasing,but there was no significant correlation between them,the regressive equation between WUE and is WUE=-4×10-62+0.008 4-5.505 2 and r is close to 1.0(n=30).
The hybrids failed to get when crossing P.tricuspidata with P.quinquefolia.Germination of pollen and growth of pollen tube were studied by fluorescence microscope observation.The findings are as follows:pollens of P.tricuspidata and P.quinquefolia could germinate on the surface of their stigmas,respectively.Pollen tubes could grow into styles.While crossing P.tricuspidata with P.quinquefolia,most of the pollens could not germinate on the stigma.Even if germinated,the pollen tubes showed some abnormity such as twinning,tip inflation and bursting.2～48 h after pollinating,pollen tube was not observed in the styles of mother parents.It can be concluded that the cross-incompatibility was taken place on the surface of stigma.
A family-test forest including 49 open-pollinated families of Eucalyptus urophylla was built at Leizhou Forestry Bureau in Suixi County,Guangdong Province to examine the genetic performance of the families.The characteristics of height,DBH,individual volume,stem form,branch and survival rate were compared among different families at 3～5 year,the results showed that:(1) The most superior families under index selections include No. 109, 113, 66, 81 and 100; (2) With the 10.20%～55.10% selected rate, the genetic gain of single volume of the superior families in family-test forest was estimated to be 7.63%～15.80% at 3rd years, 3.92%～10.39% at 4th years and 6.08%～23.53% at 5th years.
It is highly important for the life and reproduction of Monochamus alternatus larvae to bore and build the living and inhabiting tunnel.The research results showed that:there was close relationship between the quantity distribution of Monochamus alternatus larvae tennel and different pine tree height,DBH,region height in tree and the trunk bark thickness.The larval tunnel quantitative ratio increase with the pine tree height and DBH increased,but it was no correlated with the volume of different height region in tree.Most tunnels distributed in the height of 2～3 m and 3～4 m for the trees heighted 4～9 m in anerage.The bark thickness of 1.1～2.0 mm and 3.1～4.0 mm were the highest distribution zone of the larval tunnel distribution ratio in Pinus massomiana and P.taiwanensis host tree.The larvae gave out to gnaw wood warning sound,mean 2 min 35 s/time,for prevent same species larvae intrude into the tunnel.
The effects of physical properties and chemical properties of falling dust of dust storms on Beijing soils were studied and discussed.The results indicated that:The positive effects on Beijing soils are they could increase the mass amounts of silts,available nutrient,exchangeable cation,organic matter,total nitrogen,macroelement nutrients,and microelement nutrients.And they could promote the soil fertility of Beijing.The negative effects on Beijing soils are they could increase the mass amounts of soluble salt and microelements heavy metal pollution.So it could influence the soil environment quality in Beijing.
Sucrose,gluside,vitamin C and chintinase were used as synergists in the study.They could stimulate insects to eat and increase insecticidal activity of Bt in certain concentration.When gluside was mixed into Bt in the concentration of 0.2 g·L-1 under 15 ℃,20 ℃,and 25 ℃,the insecticidal activities were 39.9%,42.8%,29.4% respectively,higher than that of Bt used only.Moreover,compared with other additives it could stimulate insect to eat and increase insecticidal activity significantly. Besides, these synergists could increase the speed of killing larvas by Bt.
Azadirachta indica is an excellent multiple purpose tree adaptive to the climate of hot and arid valley.It has played an important role in ecological environment construction and in regional economy development since introduced into China.This paper aimed at giving some evidences of the relationship between growth increment of Azadirachta indica plantation and site conditions basis on the investigating materials of the neem plantation in Yuanmou County.The results of simple regression showed that the height increment of the top tree and mean tree of the plantation increased corresponding to the slope location (from mountaintop to the valley), soil moisture, soil capillary porosity, available soil depth, and rapid available P2O5 with linear function.The results of stepwise variable selection showed that the main factors effecting tree growth were slope location,soil capillary porosity and organic matter contents.The multiple equations were worked out based on data analysis.
In fire risk period, l5 provenances of Schima superba was selected to study the geographic differences and its variation patterns for fire-assistant and fire-resistant chemical component in fresh leaves. The results indicated that there were significant differences among provenances for five main chemical components including water content, percentages of lignin,ash,crude fattiness, benzene-ethanol extractive, whose differences between highest and lowest provenances were reached 5%, 31%, 80%, 66% and 33% respectively.A classical latitude clinal variation pattern was found for the 5 main chemical component aboved-mentioned.In addition, lignin and crude fattiness content were related to the longitude of the seed source. Comparing with provenances from the northern, there were more fire-resistant component content (water and ash content) and less fire-assistant component (crude fattiness and benzene-ethanol extractive content) for provenances from the southern. The lignin, as a fire-resistant component with heavy heat value when firing, was found to be related positively to the latitude of the seed source, whose geographic variation pattern was different from water and ash content. Associated with results form the provenance trial at seedling stage, it was primarily concluded that the southern provenances were more resistant to fire with higher growth rate, richer roots and more leaves, more fire-resistant and less fire-assistant chemical components in fresh leaves.
A new record of the genus Neurotoma,Neurotoma sibirica Gussakovskij to China was reported in this paper.The external morphology of the egg,larva and pupa was recorded for the first time.Neurotoma sibirica Gussakovskij,1935, a new record to China Female:body black, shinning; the following areas pale yellowish-white: a spot near the top of inner-orbit, tegula, spots near two sides of posterior margins of abdominal terga 4～6,central part of posterior margin of sternum 6, basal half of anal vein (A1)of forewing, apical part of trocantor and femur, posterior part of tibia; anterior parts of fore legs and middle legs and posterior part of tarsus brown, tarsi of hind legs blackish brown; teeth of mandible deep brown; pterostigma and veins except the basal half of 1A of forewing black, shinning; wing subhyaline; wing membrane grayish, outer margin, anterior part of posterior margin gray.Head behind eyes almost not constricted; clypeus with anterior margin truncate, central part convex, both sides concave; frontal carina sharp; median fovea round, deep; lateral sutures and transverse suture distinct; length of postocellar area about as long as its width; postgenal carina distinct; scutum of mesothorax roundly convex; mesoscutellum deeply concave; cell C of forewing pilose.Punctures on clypeus and frons rather dense; distance between punctures greater than diameter of an ocellus; paraantennal fields shinning; punctures of temple and postocellar field larger and rare, distance between punctures greater than diameter of an ocellus; punctures of tergum of mesothorox rare, punctures of mesepisterum dense; abdominal terga with very fine punctures.Apex of sawsheath see fig.1.Body length about 11 mm;forewing length about 8 mm; antenna 22-segmented, attaining only to abdomen.Male:the male is similar to the female in coloration, structure (except external genitalia) and puncture.External genitalia see fig.2,9th abdominal sternum see fig.3.body length about 7 mm;forewing length about 5 mm; antenna 22-segmented,attaining only to abdomen.Egg:oblong,yellowish white,length about 4 mm,width about 2 mm.Larva:head brownish; thorax and abdomen yellow; anterior part of antenna, coxa of thoracic leg, anterior part of trochanter, anterior part of subanal appendage, convex line of suranal plate black; prothoracic shield brownish black; apex of lacinia with 5 setae; second segment of subanal appendage with 4 setae at anterior ventral surface; apical part of suranal plate with hairs; body length about 15 mm.Pupa: yellowish white; compound eye and ocellus black; antenna extending to 2nd segment of abdomen; length of female pupa about 15 mm, of male pupa about 9 mm.Distribution: Haicheng County, Liaoning Province, China; Korea (GW, HB); E. Siberia, Sakalin; Japan (Hokkaido); Kurile Is; (Shikotan Is).Host plant:Sorbaria sorbifolia(L.)A.Br.;Sorbaria sorbifolia var.stillipila Maxim.(Shinohara, 1980);Rosaceae.Chinese material examined: 8 ♀♀ 12♂♂,2003.Ⅴ.08,Chen Tianlin leg;14 ♀♀ 4♂♂,2004.Ⅳ.23,Chen Tianlin leg;Haicheng County, Liaoning Province,China.
The paper established the principles, structure,weights of indexes, the present datum and the calculation methods on evaluation index system of urban forest, taking Huian County as an example. Depending on the evaluation index system, it evaluated the present condition of urban forest in Huian County, and established the attaining target in 2010 and in 2020. The result showed that the synthetic index system of urban forest would surpass by 1.932 times in 2010 and 2.943 times in 2020 than that of the present condition if the target was completed.The construction,the function and the coordination of urban forest would be respectively increased by 1.706,1.815 and 2.564 times.in 2010 and 2.648,2.589 and 4.269 times in 2020,therefore the environment quality would be much improved.
The provenance trails including 28 seed sources of Schima superba was used to illustrate the differences among provenances in seedling dry matter accumulation and allocation.The results showed that there existed significant differences among and within provenance zones in the dry matter accumulation of seedling and its organ (root,stem and leaf),whose differences came mainly from the provenances within provenance zones and secondly from the provenance zones.A classical latitude clinal variation pattern was found for seedling dry matter accumulation of Schima superba.Provenances from the southern zones had higher productivity of dry matter,compared with the northern provenances. No obvious genetic differentiation among provenance zones was detected for the root-shoot ratio (or the allocation of seedling dry matter to roots),and while its variation between provenances within provenance zones was marked. It was guessed that abundant rainfall and less droughty stress in the natural range of Schima superba could be one of main reasons for random variation pattern for the root-shoot ratio.
The emergence dynamics of Eurytoma maskovskii and the forecasting model were studied.The results showed that the emergence period of E.maslovskii was relatively compact and showed a mono-peak curve.The peak was in 7:00-9:30,accounting for 78.35% of the total emergence.The emergence was closely related to the weather.The mono-factor model of accumulative emergence rate and the accumulated average day temperature followed the equation of Y=0.009 694X+2.361 254.The precision rate was as high as 88.73%～98.90%.
The results obtained showed that browning rate of explants from stem segments with bud scale of seedlings of American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) collected in April was lower,then it gradually raised after April.Inducing rate of explants callus in April and May were quicker than that in June to Oct.Controlling effects of oxidative browning on WPM medium supplemented with different antioxidant are as follows:ascorbic acid (5 mg·L-1)mercapto ethanol (10 ml·L-1)polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP,1 g·L-1)active charcoal (1 g·L-1).Oxidative browning rates changed from 27.5% (CK) into 2.5%,15%,20% and 20%,respectively.Inducing rate of calli and adventitious buds on WPM medium supplemented BA (6-Bbenzyl aminopurine) and Kinetin(KT) was higher than that without KT in the medium.A large number of calluses and more adventitious bud of Explants on WPM medium containing 1 mg·L-1 BA,0.5 mg·L-1 KT,0.2 mg·L-1,0.2 mg·L-1 IBA and 5 mg·L-1 ascorbic acid could induce not only a large number of callu (inducing rate:92%) but also more adventitious buds.The medium supplemented with 1 mg·L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) favored the forming of clumping shoots.Plantlets rooted well on 1/2 MS medium containing 0.2 mg·L-1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 0.3 mg·L-1 indole butyric acid (IBA), and 5 g·L-1 active charcoal.The rooting ratio was 75%.
In order to propagate and cultivate Sequioa sempervirena,taking 63 clones introduced from France as samples,the study on techniques and measures of tissue culture of Sequioa sempervirens was carried out from the aspects of sample preparing,explant differentiation inducting,bud propagating,and root generating.The results showed that the optimum medium for inducing bud differentiation was MS+6-BA1.5 mg·L-1+KT2.0 mg·L-1,root medium was 1/2MS+IBA1.0 mg·L-1+NAA2.0 mg·L-1.
The diagnostic methods of extracelluar oxidase mat were used to select lignin-degrading enzymes producers among nineteen Ganoderma lucidum fungal strains.The results showed that the producing laccase activity of G.sp.var.Tianzhi was the highest,followed by that of G.lucidum 10 and G.lucidum 8.The producing lignin peroxidase activity of G.sp.var Tianzhi was the highes,and the producing Manganese peroxidase activity of G.sp.var yuanzhi 6 and G.lucidum G 8 were the highest,followed by that of the G.sp.var.Tianzhi and G.lucidum 10.It was found that G.sp.var Tianzhi,G.sp.var.Yuanzhi 6G.lucidum 8 and G.lucidum 10 showed the highest lignin-degrading enzymes activity.