2004 Vol. 17, No. 1
The genomic fragment of carnation ACC oxidase,the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis,was cloned and single copy plant recombinant expression vectors were constructed first.The sense and antisense repeated plant recombinant expression vectors were constructed based on the single copy vectors.The repeated vectors were indentified by restriction enzyme and PCR analysis.The vectors were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens,which was confirmed by PCR analysis.Transgenic plants of carnation were obtained by using those vectors,which were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blotting.The transgenic plants were under further analysis for transgene silence effect.
The output quantities of ions and elements within the soil surface water and the soil leakage water in the Abies georgei forest ecosystem of Mount Sejila in Tibet accounted for only a very little ratio in the total nutrient input quantities,they both accounted for less than 1%. The litters on the soil surface and the ions and/or element SO2-4, HCO-3 and N within the soil were eluviated, and the elements K, Zn and P were absorbed. The sequence of the total soil eluviation quantities was SO2-4 Cl-HCO-3CMgNCaFeNaZnPK, and that of total soil eluviation coefficients was HCO-3CaSO2-4NaCl-NMgCFePKZn.
The results from toxicity test indicated that salicylic acid (SA) at 1～20 mmol had no direct inhibition over the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum grown on modified Kelman agar plates. SA within range of 1～5 mmol was capable of inducing systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against eucalypt bacterial wilt by root pouring, but the best induction of disease resistance could only be obtained with 5 mmol salicylic acid 7 days prior to inoculation of the pathogen. Correspondingly, the activities of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) increased when SA was more than 0.1 mmol, and reached the highest level at the concentration of 5 mmol. Within 3～9 days between SA application and challenge inoculation on decapitated shoot tip with R. solanacearum, 5 mmol SA was able to induce systemic resistance against the pathogen, but the best inducing results could be gained within intervals of? 5～7 days. The activities of POX and PPO were positively correlated to the enhance disease resistance, by increasing to their maxima at the 7th day,with 2 times and 1 time higher, respectively, than those from the controlled plants. Concerning the sensitivity, POX was better than PPO to reflect the physiological change of eucalypt seedlings upon application of SA.Infiltration with SA into lower leaves could not induce SAR against bacterial wilt upon challenge inoculation on wounded shoot tips.
The mating system of natural population in Pinus bungeana was analyzed by applying isozyme starch gel technology, and the outcrossing rates of multilocus was 0.451～0.522, which standed at lower level compared with other pines and which was accordant to its lower gene flow and heterozygosity. The reasons leading to lower outcrossing rate were discussed. The genetic differentiation coefficient of family reached to 0.322, which was higher than that of population. The genetic variation among natural populations, half-sib families, and progeny individuals within half-sib families counted up 0.133, 0.279 and 0.588, respectively. The genetic diversity proportion of the three levels equaled approximately 1∶2∶4. The results provided an important basis for tree breeding and gene conservation in Pinus bungeana.
This paper dealed with the effects of P fertilization and ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation on productivity and nutrient accumulation of Eucalyptus globulus plantation in Chuxiong, Yunnan. The results showed that ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation increased tree growth of E. globulus in early stage of the plantations. However,the effect of ectomycorrhizal fungal treatments was no significant three years after plantation establishment. P fertilization increased tree diameter and height growth. But the effect of P treatments was not significant at 4.5 years old. P fertilization increased survival rate of planted trees. The low survival rate in low P treatments could increase tree growth in late stage of the plantation. The insignificant effect of P treatments at 4.5 years old was partly due to the change of survival rate in different P treatments. P fertilization increased N, P and K accumulation in tree biomass and nutrient use efficiency in wood and biomass production. P fertilization increased P accumulation in understorey and litter, but N and K. Leaf and soil sample analysis further proved that P fertilization promoted tree growth in the early stage. The experimental results indicated that ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation could only increase tree growth in low P treatments instead of high P treatments.
Using Festuca arundinaces as the material, the authors applied bacteria fertilizer E, F and H on the turfgrass, then inspected the effect of bacterial fertilizer on the drought resistance and disease resistance of turfgrass. The result indicated that the turfgrass applied with both bacterial fertilizer and chemical fertilizer grew better than that of other treatments, the contents of proline, nitrate reductase(NR), chlorophyll increased, while electrolyte leakage and the content of MDA declined, the drought resistance of the turfgrass was advanced. After the turfgrass were inoculated by Rhizoctonia solani, the number of disease spot of turfgrass which added bacteria fertilizer and chemical fertilizer were less than that of other treatments, and the contents of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were higher than that of other treatment. The resistance of turfgrass on the Rhizoctonia solani was advanced.
Three methods(SDS method, CTAB method and high salt low pH method)for DNA extracting were compared. The CTAB method was the best method for Liquidambar formosana DNA extracting. And PCR procedure was optimized about the factors Mg++, DNA density etc. It's proved that the optimum PCR procedure was as follows:pre-denaturating under 94 ℃ for 4 minutes, denaturating under 94 ℃ for 1 minutes, annealing under 36 ℃ for 1 minutes and extending under 72 ℃ for 1.5 minutes. After 40 cycles, the sample was reacted for 8 minutes under 72 ℃. PCR system includes buffer 2 μL,Mg++ 3.0 mmol·L-1, Taq enzyme 1 U, dNTP 2.5 mmol·L-1, primer 0.7 mmol·L-1,DNA 60 ng.
s:The longitudinal variation of main chemical compositions in the heartwood and sapwood of Chinese fir and Poplar×euramaricana cv.I-72/58 were studied. The holocellulose, α-cellulose, lignin, acid-soluble lignin, and the ratio of cellulose to lignin were investigated. The results showed that the contents of holocellulose and cellulose in both Chinese fir and Poplar×euramaricana cv.I-72/58 were higher in the sapwood than in the heartwood, but differet in logitudinal direction of the woods.The variability pattern for the content of hemicellulose in the sapwood and the heartwood of both Chinese fir and Poplar×euramaricana cv.I-72/58 was different; the content of lignin for Chinese fir was higher in the sapwood than in the heartwood, the content of lignin became lower in the sapwood and increased in beginning then stepped up with the tree part being higher.The variability pattern for the content of lignin in the sapwood and the heartwood of Poplar×euramaricana cv.I-72/58 was also different.The content of acid-soluble lignin became lower in the sapwood and heartwood of both Chinese fir and Poplar×euramaricana cv.I-72/58 with the tree part being higher.The content of acid-soluble lignin was higher in the sapwood than in the heartwood for Chinese fir, but the content of acid-soluble lignin was higher in the heartwood than in the sapwood for Poplar×euramaricana cv.I-72/58.The variabilities for the ratio of holocellulose to lignin follow different patterns in the longitudinal direction.
According to the characteristics of Zoysia sinica seeds, different treatments were arranged to break the seeds deep dormancy. The result showed that the seeds germinated well when they were treated with 700 (mL·L-1) alcohol for 3 min, with 300 mg·L-1 NaOH for 20 min and with 200 mg·L-1 GA3 for 10 min sequentially,the germination potential was 89.9% in 7 days, which was 51.9% higher than that of the control.In 16 days,91.0% of seeds could germinate, nearing the potential germination rate, which was 51.8% higher than the control.
s: Ficus auriculata is a gynodioecious plant.Its pollinator is Ceratosolen emarginatus,it is highly co-evolved mutualists that depended completely on each other for reproduction. Hence, their structures showed adaptive change. The female flower of Ficus auriculata varied markedly in style length. In the female inflorescence, the style of female flower was long and had some bristles; Stigma was funnelform and possessed short hairs. The structures of long-styled female flowers could prevent oviposition and be beneficial for sticking pollen. Short-styled female flowers developed in the male inflorescences, its style was smooth and suitable for laying eggs. The population of Ficus auriculata had inflorescences around the year, there were 2 peaks in production of female trees, the fruit-bearing ratio was 80%. Most male trees bore fruits from October to March of next year, the fruit-bearing ratio attained 90%. Male inflorescences mainly provide places for pollinating wasps to survive the winter, and producing enough pollination wasps to following fruit-bearing peak of female trees. In the population of Ficus auriculata, diameter of male inflorescence was larger and its developing time was longer than that of female inflorescence, which it costed 125 days to complete whole developmental period, and 78% of male inflorescences could normally be mature. However, female inflorescences only costed 80 days from pre-female to mature phases. 22% of female inflorescences could successfully produce seed because inflorescences were eaten by insects or affected by other factors. Moreover, five species of non-pollination also lived in inflorescences, they laid eggs outside fig to compete ovaries with pollinators, or parasitized pollinators.In result, the population of Ceratosolen emarginatus was restrained, and further influenced the pollination and seed production of Ficus auriculata.
Taking the survival rate of the isolation of strain,the speed of germination of the first hypha and the state of hypha'growth as the standard,ten factors concerning the culture medium,the isolating material, the isolating environment and the culture method were studied.It showed that the medium should be ten days old from making to isolating,the best contents was BOH,the best materials were pileus and tubuli of the middle and young fructification that were collected in sunny or cloudy days.The isolating environment might be the open air or the transfer box in room.The best isolating method was to put the test tube slantways after isolating.
Non-pathogenic nematodes, such as Bursaphelenchus mucronatus, carried by major pine borer beetles, Monochamus alternatus, Spondylis buprestoides and Arhopalus rusticus in Huangshan Scenic Area were investigated in 2000-2001. Results showed that all the three pine beetles were competent to carry nematode,61.3% of M. alternatus found caring nematode.The largest average number of nematode carried per beetle were found in A. rusticus and M. alternatus, with the number of 5128.6 and 3622.0 and in Wenquan scenic spot and Xihai scenic spot, with average number of 4781 and 10840 for M. alternatus and A. rusticus respectively. Time dynamic of the nematode carried by beetles and the relationships between genital, body size and the number of nematode carried were also discussed.
On a field trial on mycorrhizal tissue culture seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis × Europhylla with Pisolithus tinctorius (P.t.), it was found that the P.t had sustained more than 10 years, but inoculated Hebeloma westraliense and Laccaria laccata had sustained only from 2～6 years, then the two fungus species were substituted by other mycorrhizal species fungi. In nature, no-innoculated trees of E. golbulus were Scleroderma and Lacaaria as dominant fungus species from 2～4 years after planting, then they were respectively substituted by Cantharellus spp. and Boletus spp.. Tricholoma matsutake could persist more than 10 years in natural forests,which had high persistence ability. On inoculated seedlings of Pinus yunnanensis, mycelia of Tricholoma matsutake grew well from 1～6 years after planting. The succession and persistence of mycorrhizal fungus had been concerned with the fungus characteristics. If the fungus was suitable to local environment condition, the fungus growth and development had persisted for long time, otherwise the fungus could be substituted by other fungi. We suggested that the mycorrhizal fungus application should follow the principle-suitable fungus for suitable land and suitable fungus for suitable trees. Only in this way,the effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungus would persist and benefit.
The effects of plant growth substances,rare-earth,the mixture of plant growth substances and rare-earth,and water on the yields of 8-year-old Castanea henryi plantations with high,middle and low yields were analyzed.The results indicated that the yield of Castanea henryi plantation treated with 400 mg·kg-1 rare-earth elements increased the most,followed by 5 g·kg-1 TDS and the mixture (400 mg·kg-1 rare-earth elements+5 g·kg-1 TDS).The effect of water was the poorest.The effect of treatment was positively correlated with the type of plantation.The higher the yield of plantation,the more the yield increased.The physiological basis of yield increase was the increases of the content of chlorophyll and the photosynthetic rate by these treatments.
Ten phosphate solubilizing bacterial(PSB) strains were isolated from the mangrove rhizospere.The culture condition of the selected most effective strain ZB0211 was examined from 4 aspects.The experimental results showed that the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were respectively sucrose (10 g·kg-1) and NH4Cl ((1 g·kg-1)),the optimal concertration of NaCl was 1%,and optimal pH 7.5.The potential relationship among pH level,bacterial rowth and phosphate-dissolving ability was also discussed.
Plantlets were regenerated from seed-derived callus of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The replacements of 2,4-D by dicamba, maltose by sucrose in the callus induction medium significantly improved callus induction frequency and overall plant regeneration ability. From 3 mg·L-1 to 9 mg·L-1, the stepwise increase of the 2,4-D concentration in maltose containing callus induction medium obviously increased callus induction frequency but decreased callus differentiation frequency. The callus induction medium supplemented with two auxins (2,4-D and NAA) was much better than that with 2,4-D individual. Elevating concentrations of casein hydrolysate, proline and glutamine did not improve overall plant regeneration frequency.
Pathogenic toxin of Leptographium yunnanense associated with Tomicus piniperda could pathogeny not only to Pinus yunnanensis,but also to P.armandii and P.kesiya var. langbianensis. The symptoms were very complicated and not easy to be observed and determined when bioassaying the toxin with seedlings cutted roots, however, when bioassaying the toxin with sampling trees and its wood blocks, the symptoms would be observed clearly, and as the same as they were induced by inoculating the fungus to the host trees. The bioassay results would be observed sooner (about 5 days) when bioassaying the toxin with wood block, so it was better to inoculate the pathogenic toxin to the wood blocks for bioassay.
A great deal of attention had been paid on the stability of plantation in the world.Whether the long-term productivity could be maintained was an important aspect in the study on plantation.If the plantation leaded to soil degradation and if conifers cause soil acidification had been the focuses debated in the world.Based on the data collected,the authors described the present research on long-term productivity of plantation in the world,including (1) the studies on strategy,methodology,basic process of ecosystem,(2)change of site quality when plantation was established,including handling of harvest residues,site preparation,tending,thinning,forest harvest,tree species of plantation and effects of plantation community structure on site productivity.Various research achievements,conclusions and viewpoints were summarized in this paper.The research trends and research fields about long-term site productivity of plantation were also summed up.
The advances in research of insect cell engineering at home and abroad since the establishment of the first insect cell line in 1960s were reviewed,which included the research of insect cell culture medium,establishment of insect cell lines,cryopresservation of insect cells,testing and solving of pollution during the course of the insect cell culture.The present research and future development of insect cell-baculovirus expression vector system were also discussed.
The achievements in the 50-year's research on the distribution characteristics, physiological characteristics, evaluation on site-matching condition of plantation, density and water balance of Haloxylon population, the techniques of Haloxylon regeneration and its benefits, were summarized. With the progress in sand control engineering and eco-environment construction in western China, selecting suitable plant species became urgent problems to be solved in sand control engineering. It was necessary to strengthen the research on seedling culture, fast-propagation technique and the population stability of Haloxylon, which will benefit the change of species lack in desertified region, increased the diversity of xerophilous species and improve the stability of deteriorated ecosystem.
The interrelationship between the eco-tourism resources and the eco-tourism commodity,was analyzed,as well as the value and the price of eco-tourism commodity.The main body of eco-tourism commodity was natural resource, which was a main contributor to the value, and should be a main constituent in the commodity price. However, the traditional theory about the price constitution of tourism commodity could not explain correctly the price constitution of eco-tourism commodity. Under the guide of traditional price theory of tourism commodity, the theoretic value and the operating price of eco-tourism commodity did not reflect the nature of eco-tourism commodity, the main contributor of the price of eco-tourism commodity was ignored or misplaced. It would retard directly the sustainable development of eco-tourism.